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Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
ASMAKTA – A word meaning "support," "reliance" (Ket. 67a); hence it is used to designate a Bible text quoted in support of a rabbinical enactment (Ḥul. 64b; see Jastrow, "Dict." s.v.).Legal Meaning. In civil law Asmakta (surety) is a...
ASNAPPER – A person who transplanted the mixed multitude of tribes from Babylon to Samaria after the fall of the latter city (Ezra iv. 10). It has been conjectured that this word is a misreading for Assurbanipal, though the reference in...
ASSAULT AND BATTERY – An English law term for injury to the person—a crime recognized from the earliest stages of human law. Disputes about property, about contracts, or about the rights of man in the family or in society, arose later in the course...
ASSHURITES – Biblical Data: A nation descended from Abraham and Keturah (Gen. xxv. 3). In prophetic literature the nation is mentioned as being engaged in making benches of ivory for Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 6). The Asshurites in II Sam. ii. 9can...
ASSI – Name. A prænomen of several amoraim, which, with its variants, is a modification or diminutive of "Joseph" (compare Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 371; "Ag.Pal. Amor." ii. 151, 8). "Assi" is of Babylonian origin, while other forms are...
ASSIGNMENT – According to common law, "the transferring and setting over to another of some right, title, or interest in things in which a third party, not a party to the assignment, has a concern and interest" (J. Bacon's "Abridgment," p....
ASTROLOGY – Biblical. See Astronomy, Biblical.Terminology. —In the Apocrypha and in the Talmud: Neither (Isa. xlvii. 13), which the Greek translation renders "astrologers," nor (Dan. ii. 27 et seq.), the technical designation for the...
ASTRONOMY – Biblical Data: Biblical Astronomy, in the broad sense, includes the views taken in the books of the Bible of the position of the earth in the universe, the designation of the stars, planets, fixed stars, and the views held...
ASUSA, ASUTA – A sentiment expressed toward one who is sneezing. In Tosef., Shab. vii. (viii.) 5 it is declared to be a forbidden heathen (Amorite) practise to wish one health ("marpe"), whereas R. Eliezer b. Zadok, of the first century, says:...
ASYLUM – Origin and Character. —Biblical Data (ἰσυλον, "inviolable"): A place of refuge for slaves, debtors, political offenders, and criminals; a sacred spot, a sanctuary, altar, or grave, protected by the presence of a deity or other...
ATARAH – Biblical Data: A wife of Jerahmeel and the mother of Onam (I Chron. ii. 26). If Jerahmeel, as seems probable, is the name of a clan, the expression "wife" might point to an alliance (or in the case of "wives" alliances) with...
ATHENIANS in Talmud and Midrash – The Jewish folk-lore of Palestine was fond of contrasting the inhabitants of Athens and of Jerusalem, and of opposing the Rabbis to the Attic sages. Greek philosophy and esthetics did not greatly impress the Jewish people, who...
ATTESTATION OF DOCUMENTS (Ḥatimah) – The general rule of evidence is that a fact can be established only by the testimony of two witnesses. With the introduction of writing and the custom of making written records of the transactions, the strictness of the rule...
ATTORNEY – A legal representative, empowered to plead on behalf of the person represented. Attorneys at law are unknown in Jewish law. The examination and cross-examination of the witnesses were conducted by the judges; and in criminal...
ATTORNEY, POWER OF (Harshaah) – An instrument empowering an agent to act on behalf of a principal. The following formula of a Power of Attorney is taken from "Naḥalat Shib'ah," chap. xliv.:"A memorial of testimony taken before us witnesses whose names are...
AUTHENTICATION OF DOCUMENTS (Ḳiyyum, Asharta, Henpek) – Methods of Authentication. An official certificate of genuineness. This is either the result of actual litigation on the subject, in which case the decision of the court is the official authentication, or where the proper...
AWIA, RAB – Babylonian amora of the fourth generation (fourth century), contemporary of Abaye and Raba (Ber. 28b; Shab. 46a), and brother-in-law of Rammi b. Pappa (B. B. 100b; Ket. 56b; compare "Aruch Completum," vii. 277, s.v. ). He was a...
AWIA SABA (THE ELDER), RAB – Babylonian halakist of the third amoraic generation (third and fourth centuries), a contemporary of Rab Pappa (the Elder) and of Rabbah b. Ḥanan (M. Ḳ. 24b; Ḳid. 39a). He was a Pumbeditan by birth, but often sat at the feet of...
'AWIRA, RAB – Babylonian amora of the third and fourth generations (fourth century); contemporary of Abaye and Safra—the latter speaking of him as of "a scholar coming from the West" (Palestine). 'Awira had emigrated to Palestine, where he...
AZARIAH – Biblical Data: The name given to twenty-six different persons in the Old Testament. The most important are:1. A noble in the court of Solomon. According to I Kings iv. 2, he was the son of Zadok the priest. I Chron. v. 35 [A. V....
AZARIAH – Biblical Data: The name given to twenty-six different persons in the Old Testament. The most important are:1. A noble in the court of Solomon. According to I Kings iv. 2, he was the son of Zadok the priest. I Chron. v. 35 [A. V....
AZARIAH – A Palestinian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century), often quoted in conjunction with R. Aḥa (Lev. R. vi. 5; Cant. R. to v. 16), R. Judan (Gen. R. xlvii.; Cant. R. to i. 4), and R. Judah b. Simon (Gen. R....
AZAZEL – The name of a supernatural being mentioned in connection with the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.). After Satan, for whom he was in some degree a preparation, Azazel enjoys the distinction of being the most mysterious...
'AZZUT PANIM – A term applied to an impudent person. The phrase "'az panim" occurs in Deut. xxviii. 50 ("a nation of fierce countenance"), and in Dan. viii. 23 ("a king of fierce countenance"). "The brazen-faced one goes to Gehenna, the...
BA'AL – Hebrew word for possessor or owner of an object. In connection with many nouns, it expresses some relation between the person and an object. Many of these combinations are found in Bible phraseology, and are still used,...