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Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BARAITA ON THE (TREATISE) ABOT – A Baraita consisting of eleven paragraphs on the excellences of the Torah and on the right way to become acquainted with it. This Baraita claims to be a supplement to the treatise Abot, having as a superscription the words: "The...
BARAITA OF R. ADA – A Baraita on the calendar. The only one who speaks of such a Baraita is Abraham b. Ḥiyya ha-Nassi ("Sefer ha-'Ibbur," iii. 4), to whom probably are to be ascribed the words on the Baraita which occur in the commentary by Obadiah...
BARAITA ON THE CREATION – 1. See Ma'aseh Bereshit.2. Under the title , L. Goldschmidt published a work (Strasburg, 1894) which he gave out to be an Aramaic apocryphon. But A. Epstein ("Monatsschrift," xxxviii. 479) has shown that it is a spurious work by...
BARAITA OF R. ELIEZER – The customary name for the PirḲe R. Eliezer among the older scholars, as Rashi and in the 'Aruk. Some recent scholars follow their example in using this title.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA ON THE ERECTION OF THE TABERNACLE – A Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the 'Aruk, as well as in Rashi, Yalḳut, and Maimonides. Rashi calls it a Mishnah. It treats in fourteen sections (in the Munich MS., sections i. and ii....
BARAITA OF THE FORTY-NINE RULES – Rashi, the Tosafists, Abraham ibn Ezra, Yalḳut, and Asher ben Jehiel mention a work, "Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules," and make citations from it (thus, Rashi, ed. Berliner, on Ex. xxvi. 5; Yalḳ., Gen. 61, calls it "Midrash";...
BARAITA OF R. ISHMAEL – A Baraita which explains the thirteen rules of R. Ishmael, and their application, by means of illustrations from the Bible. The name is inaccurately given also to the first part of the Baraita, which only enumerates the thirteen...
BARAITA OF R. JOSE – Name given by some of the old scholars to the Seder 'Olam Rabbah. Concerning another Baraita of the same name, see Brüll, "Jahrbücher," v. 99.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA ON THE MYSTERY OF THE CALCULATION OF THE CALENDAR – A Baraita cited in the Talmud (R. H. 20b). Since special care was taken to keep it secret, it has not been preserved; but it is probable that the Baraita of Samuel incorporated a considerable portion of it. The Talmud citation...
BARAITA DE-NIDDAH – This Baraita, expressly mentioned by Naḥmanides, and probably known to the Geonim and the German-French Talmudists of the thirteenth century, was until recently supposed to be lost. It was not published until 1890, when it was...
BARAITA OF R. PHINEHAS B. JAIR – 1. See Midrash Tadshe.2. A Baraita printed by Grünhut, in "Sefer ha-Liḳḳuṭim," ii. 20b-21a. It contains the sayings of R. Phinehas b. Jair and R. Eliezer ha-Gadol on the Messianic times and on the various degrees of piety given...
BARAITA ON SALVATION – A haggadic Baraita, which Schönblum (Lemberg, 1877) published for the first time in the collection "Sheloshah Sefarim Niftaḥim." It enumerates twenty-four sins which delay the [Messianic] salvation and prolong "the end"...
BARAITA OF SAMUEL – A Baraita of Samuel was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the tenth century to Simon Duran in the fifteenth century; and citations from it were made by them. It was considered as lost until quite recently, when...
BARAITA OF THE THIRTY-TWO RULES – A Baraita giving the thirty-two hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted. Abul-Walid ibn Janaḥ is the oldest authority who drew upon this Baraita, but he did not mention it by name. Rashi makes frequent use...
BARAK – Biblical Data: A warrior; the son of Abinoam mentioned in Judges iv. 6, v. 12, as the most important ally of Deborah in the struggle against the Canaanites. Deborah summoned Barak, the son of Abinoam, from his home at Kedesh in...
BAREFOOT – Biblical Data: In II Sam. xv. 30 it is mentioned that David, on his flight before Absalom, went Barefoot to show his grief. Micah i. 8, "to be barefooted" (according to LXX.; "stripped," A. V.) is, likewise, a sign of mourning....
BARREN, BARRENNESS – The Hebrew word for "barren"— ('akar); feminine, ('aḳarah)—denotes probably "uprooted," in the sense of being torn away from the family stock, and left to wither without progeny or successors. A similar import attaches to the...
BARTER – The exchange of things of value, none of them being money. Barter is distinguished from a sale, where one of the things is money. As trading must have existed long before even the rudest kind of money was invented, Barter must...
BARUCH – 1. Son of Zabbai or Zaccai, who took part in strengthening the wall of Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. iii. 20).2. A priest who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. x. 7).3. A Judahite whose son Maaseiah was a...
BASTARD – In the English use of the word, a child neither born nor begotten in lawful wedlock; an illegitimate child. There is no Hebrew word of like meaning. The mamzer, rendered "bastard" in the A. V., is something worse than an...
BATH-SHEBA – Biblical Data: The daughter of Eliam (II Sam. xi. 3; but of Ammiel according to I Chron. iii. 5), who became the wife of Uriah the Hittite, and afterward of David, by whom she became the mother of Solomon. Her father is...
BATHYRA – A family whose name is probably identical with that of the city of Bathyra. The name is so rare that all persons called "Bathyra" in the Talmud and Midrash are included in the one family, although there are no data to prove...
BAṬLANIM – Title of the ten men of leisure who, unoccupied by business of their own, devote their whole time to communal affairs and are particularly relied upon to attend divine service regularly at the synagogue. Only such places are...
BE ABIDAN – Supposed names of two places where, according to the Talmud, disputations between Jews and non-Jews were held. The location of these places is as much a matter of dispute as the words themselves—were they really names of places...
BE RAB – A name which, in the Talmud, has various meanings and occurs in a variety of combinations. Its immediate signification, however, is "academy of a tannaite or amora" (compare 'Er. 73a), for which the Jerusalem Talmud substitutes...