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Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BEBAI – The Palestinian and the Babylonian Talmudim, as also the Palestinian Midrashim, frequently cite an amora named Bebai, sometimes as "Rabbi" and sometimes as "Rab," but without further designation; and as all the data relating to...
BEBAI B. ABAYE – A Babylonian scholar of the fourth and fifth amoraic generations (fourth century), son of the celebrated Abaye Naḥmani, and presiding judge in Pumbedita (Yeb. 75b; Ket. 85a), where his father had directed the academy. Some...
BEBAI B. ABBA, R. – A Palestinian haggadist, of uncertain date and rarely cited, whose name appears also as "Bebai Rabbah," "Beba Raba," and "Beba Abba" (Lev. R. xxix. 9; Yer. Ta'an. ii. 65d; Pesiḳ. Baḥodesh, 154a; Yalḳ., Lev. 645). He is cited...
BEBAI, BEN – A priestly family or gild having charge of the preparation of wicks for the Temple lamps (Sheḳ. v. 1; Yer. Sheḳ. v. 48d; Yer. Peah viii. 21a). The name is derived from the first person appointed to that office after the return...
BEERAH – Biblical Data: A descendant of Reuben, and head of the tribe at the time it was taken into captivity by Tiglath-pileser (I Chron.v. 6).J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Beerah, the prince of the tribe of Reuben, is...
BEGGING AND BEGGARS – Although it has made ample provision for the relief of the poor, the Mosaic legislation does not contain any prescription with regard to beggars; nor has the Biblical Hebrew a specific term for professional beggary, the nearest...
BEHEADING – Biblical Data: As a regular capital punishment, Beheading does not seem to have been known to the Israelites before the time of the Greek dominion. Only cutting off the head of a slain or disabled enemy (I Sam. xvii. 51 et seq.)...
BEKOROT – The Mishnah. Name of the fourth treatise—according to the order of the Mishnah—of Seder Ḳodashim ("Holy Things"). The law concerning the first-born is repeated in the Pentateuch several times (Ex. xiii. 2, 11-15; xxxiv. 19-20;...
BELIAL – Biblical Data: A term occurring often in the Old Testament and applied, as would seem from the context in I Sam. x. 27; II Sam. xvi. 7, xx. 1; II Chron. xiii. 7; Job xxxiv. 18, to any one opposing the established authority,...
BELSHAZZAR – Biblical Data: King of Babylon mentioned in Dan. v. and viii. as the son of Nebuchadnezzar and as the last king before the advent of the Medes and Persians. The Greek form Βαλτάζαρ is used both for the Hebrew "Belshasar," or...
BEMIDBAR RABBAH – Relation to Tanḥuma. The Midrash commentary upon Numbers, called in the editio princeps of Constantinople (1512) "Bemidbar Sinai Rabbah," and so cited frequently by Naḥmanides and others. It is the latest component of the...
BEN 'AZZAI – Connection with the Canon. A distinguished tanna of the first third of the second century. His full name was Simon b. 'Azzai, to which sometimes the title "Rabbi" is prefixed. But, in spite of his great learning, this title did...
BEN BAG-BAG – An early tanna. At the end of the Mishnah Abot (v. 22, 23) two sentences are given concerning the study of the Torah; one by Ben Bag-Bag, the other by Ben Hê-Hê. Both sentences are also ascribed to Hillel (Ab. R. N. xii.); as...
BEN-BAṬIAḤ – 1. A man, at the time of the teachers of the Mishnah ("'Aruk," s.v. ), whose fist, being about the size of an adult's head, was used as a standard of measurement (Kelim xvii.; Bek. 37b; compare hip-bone of the giant king Og,...
BEN ELASAH – A rich and prominent Palestinian of about the middle of the second century. He was the son-in-law of R. Judah ha-Nasi I., and is chiefly known in the Talmud as having been made a butt of on various occasions by Bar Ḳappara (Ned....
BEN-HADAD – Biblical Data: A name that would seem to mean simply "the son of Hadad," a well-known appellation of an Aramean and perhaps also of an Edomite deity (see Hadad). As found in the Old Testament, the name is applied to at least two...
BEN KALBA SABBUA' – A rich and prominent man of Jerusalem who flourished about the year 70. According to the Talmud (Giṭ. 56a), he obtained his name from the fact that any one that came to his house hungry as a dog (Kalba), went away satisfied...
BEN LA'ANAH – Author of an apocryphal book. The name occurs only once in Yer. (Sanh. x. 28a), where it is said that among the apocryphal books ("sefarim ha-ḥiẓonim") mentioned in the Mishnah (Sanh. x. 1) as forbidden to be read, the works of...
BEN TEMALION – A demon mentioned in the Talmud. When the Jewish sages, with Simon b. Yoḥai at their head, went to Rome to obtain the revocation of certain edicts hostile to the Jews, the demon Ben Temalion appeared before them and ofered his...
BEN ZOMA – Tanna of the first third of the second century. His full name is Simon b. Zoma without the title "Rabbi"; for, like Ben 'Azzai, he remained in the grade of "pupil," and is often mentioned together with Ben 'Azzai as a...
BENAIAH – Biblical Data: 1. One of the Bene Parosh who took foreign wives (Ezra x. 25); in I Esd. ix. 26 he is called "Baanias."2. One of the Bene Pahath-moab in the same list (Ezra x. 30), called "Naidus" in I Esd. ix. 31.3. One of the...
BENJAMIN – Biblical Data: Youngest son of Jacob by Rachel, who died on the road between Beth-el and Ephrath, while giving him birth. She named him "Ben-oni" (son of my sorrow); but Jacob, to avert the evil omen, called him "Ben Yamin," son...
BENJAMIN, R. – A tanna of the second century, contemporary of R. Eleazar ben Shammu'a, with whom he carried on some halakic controversy (Ket. 84a). He is also mentioned in connection with Symmachus (Niddah 21b); and elsewhere (Sem. ix.) he...
BENJAMIN B. 'ASHTOR – A Palestinian halakist of the third amoraic generation, contemporary of R. Ḥiyya b. Abba and senior to R. Hezekiah (Yer. Bik. i. 64a). He is also cited as simply Bar'Ashtor, without his prænomen, ib.J. Sr. S. M....
BENJAMIN ASYA – A Babylonian rabbinic scholar of the third and fourth amoraic generations (fourth century), contemporary of Rab Joseph and Raba, and founder of a school named after him, Debe Minyomi Asya. It is reported that the disciples of...