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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NATHAN BEN SAMUEL – Spanish physician; flourished, as far as is known, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. He is designated in some manuscripts by the abbreviation which some render "Nathan ben Samuel Tibbon," and others, more correctly...
NAVIGATION – Biblical Data: That the Israelites, practically, did not engage in navigation is due to the fact that they never held the sea-coast for any length of time. According to Judges v. 17, Josh. xix. 26, 28, Gen. xlix. 13, and Deut....
NAZARENES – Sect of primitive Christianity; it appears to have embraced all those Christians who had been born Jews and who neither would nor could give up their Jewish mode of life. They were probably the descendants of the...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NEBO, MOUNT – According to Deut. xxxii. 49 and xxxiv. 1-3, it was from this mountain that Moses, just before his death, surveyed the promised land. Both these passages belong to the Priestly Code (P). This mountain is probably the same as the...
NEBUSHASBAN – The first-named of the four chief officers sent by Nebuzar-adan to take Jeremiah out of the court of the guard (Jer. xxxix. 13) and to deliver him into safe hands. The position of this official is not known. The equivalent of...
NEBUZAR-ADAN – Biblical Data: Captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard. Nebuzar-adan entered Jerusalem in 586 B.C., burned the Temple, the king's palace, and the houses of the great, razed the walls of the city, and carried many of its people...
NEBUZAR-ADAN – Biblical Data: Captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard. Nebuzar-adan entered Jerusalem in 586 B.C., burned the Temple, the king's palace, and the houses of the great, razed the walls of the city, and carried many of its people...
NECHO – King of Egypt from 610 to 594 B.C.; son of Psam(m)ethik I., of the twenty-sixth Egyptian dynasty. According to Herodotus (ii. 158), he undertook to connect an arm of the Nile with the Red Sea by means of a canal; he was really...
NERGAL – God of the Babylonian city of Cuthah or Cuth or Kutu. In II Kings xvii. 30 it is said that the men of Cuth, whom Sargon settled in Samaria, made an image of Nergal. A Phenician funerary inscription erected by a Sidonian at...
NETHINIM – Temple officials. They are first heard of as returning from Babylon to Palestine, after the Exile, in two batches, one numbering 392, the second 220 (Ezra ii. 58, viii. 20). A list of the families composing the first batch is...
NEUMARK, MIRELS (Meshullam Zalman ben Jacob David) – German Talmudist; father of Ẓebi Ashkenazi; died at Hamburg Nov. 28, 1706. Meshullam Zalman was one of the most respected members of the ghetto of Vienna. When the Jews were expelled from that city he went with his family to...
NEW TESTAMENT – Historical Books: The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that...
NEW-YEAR FOR TREES – Arbor Day. The anniversary of the festival of trees, which occurs on the 15th of Shebaṭ (roughly corresponding to Feb. 1), is known as "Ḥamishshah 'Asar bi-Shebaṭ," or as "Ḥamishshah 'Asar" (= "the fifteenth"), and is celebrated...
NEYAR, SEFER HA- – Anonymous compendium of laws; compiled during the first third of the fourteenth century, after 1319, probably by a Provençal. It consists mainly of extracts from the works of French scholars, although the "Halakot Gedolot" and...
NILE – The great river of Egypt; frequently referred to in the Bible. The Authorized Version everywhere renders the word employed, "ye'or," by "river." "Ye'or" has no Semitic etymology (as, e.g., Lagarde and Fr. Delitzsch have...
NIMROD – Biblical Data: Son of Cush and grandson of Ham; his name has become proverbial as that of a mighty hunter. His "kingdom" comprised Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Sinar, otherwise known as the land of Nimrod...
NINEVEH – City of Assyria. The form of its name is derived from the Masoretic text. It answers as nearly as possible to the native Assyrian form "Ninua." The origin of the name is obscure. Possibly it meant originally the seat of Ishtar,...
NIPPUR – Ancient name of a great city in central Babylonia whose ruined site is now known as Nuffar (Niffer), which is the same word in an Arabicized form. It is one of the oldest cities in the world at present identifiable by name and...
NISSIM, ḤAYYIM B. ELIJAH – Turkish rabbi; probably lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Maẓa Ḥayyim," homilies and comments on the Pentateuch. It was published, together with some additions, by his son Samuel b. Ḥayyim...
NISSIM B. REUBEN GERONDI – Physician, astronomer, and halakist; flourished at Barcelona about 1340 to 1380. He had much to suffer at the hands of certain wealthy and powerful Jews of his community, who even slandered him before the government (Isaac b....
NITER – The niter of the ancients was a mineral alkaline salt, carbonate of soda, found in great quantities in Egypt. Natron Lake and Natron Valley derive their name from its presence in them; and they are still exploited for niter as...
NO-AMON – Name designating the city of Thebes, in Egypt, and equivalent to "No, the city of the god Amon"; found in Nah. iii. 8 (comp. Jer. xlvi. 25, where Amon is spoken of as the god of No). The current form is the later Hebrew...