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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NOAH – Biblical Data: Son of Lamech and the ninth in descent from Adam. In the midst ofabounding corruption he alone was "righteous and blameless in his generations" and "walked with God" (Gen. vi. 9). Hence, when all his...
NOB – City or village of priests where David received holy bread when in pressing need of food at the beginning of his persecution by Saul (I Sam. xxi. 1-9), for which nearly the whole community was put to death. It is also referred...
NOLA, ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH DI – Italian physician and rabbi of the sixteenth century. In 1563 he was living in Rome, where he occupied the position of rabbi. He enjoyed a high reputation as a Talmudical authority and was consulted on halakic decisions. A...
NOMISM – That religious tendency which aims at the control of both social and individual life by legalism, making the law the supreme norm. The term "nomism" or "legalism" is sometimes used to imply an externalizing tendency of religion...
NOṬARIḲON – A system of shorthand consisting in either simply abbreviating the words or in writing only one letter of each word. This system, used by the Romans in their courts of justice for recording the proceedingsof the court (comp....
NOVEIRA, MENAHEM – Italian rabbi of Verona and poet of the eighteenth century. He was a grandson of Hezekiah Mordecai Basan. His three responsa are appended to his grandfather's "Pene Yiẓḥaḳ," which he published in Mantua in 1744. He was also the...
NUMBERS, BOOK OF – Fourth book of the Pentateuch. In the Septuagint version it bears the title 'ΑριΘμο in the Vulgate, "Numeri," from the command given by God, contained in the first chapter, to number the children of Israel. In Jewish literature...
NUMBERS AND NUMERALS – Numerical Notation. The letters of the alphabet were used as numerical symbols as early as the Maccabean period (comp. Numismatics). Whether such a usage was known in earlier times also, whether there existed in Israel, as among...
OATH – Function of Oath. The Hebrew terms for "oath," "alah" and "shebu'ah," are used interchangeably in the Old Testament (comp. Gen. xxiv. 8 and 41; see also Shebu. 36a). According to the ancient Jewish principle of jurisprudence the...
OBADIAH – The name of thirteen different persons mentioned in the Bible. As vocalized in the Masoretic text, it means "worshiper of Yhwh." 1. Head steward to King Ahab of Israel. At the time of the persecution of the prophets of Yhwh by...
OBED – 1. Son of Boaz by Ruth, the daughter of Naomi. He was named, curiously enough, by Naomi's neighbors, and not after his own kindred. Obed was the father of Jesse and the grandfather of David (Ruth iv. 17, 21, 22; I Chron. ii....
OBED-EDOM – 1. Biblical Data: A Gittite to whose house the Ark was taken when removed from that of Abinadab in Gibeah. It remained with Obed-edom three months before it was carried to the City of David; and God "blessed Obededom and all his...
OBORNIK (OBERNIK), MEÏR – Biurist and one of the Me'assefim; born in 1764; died at Vienna Nov. 6, 1805. Obornik contributed to the "Meassef" a great number of fables and was one of the most active of the Biurists. He translated into German the Books of...
ŒNOMAUS OF GADARA – Pagan philosopher; lived during the reign of the emperor Hadrian (117-138); he belonged to the school of the younger Cynics. In his book entitled "The Detection of Witches," from which Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," §§...
OESTERREICHISCHE WOCHENSCHRIFT, Central-Organ für die Gesammten Interessen des Judentums – Austrian weekly, founded by Deputy Dr. Josef S. Bloch to combat Austrian anti-Semitism; published at Vienna every Friday since Oct. 15, 1884. In its pages appeared the chief attacks upon Professor Rohling and Pastor Deckert, and...
OLIVEYRA, SOLOMON DE – akam and author; son of the Portuguese scholar David Israel de Oliveyra of Amsterdam; died May 23, 1708, at Amsterdam. He was preacher at several philanthropic institutions, successor of Moses Raphael de Aguilar as teacher at...
'OMER – Biblical Data: The Israelites were commanded after the conquest of Canaan to bring at harvest-time an 'omer of the first-fruits to the priest as a wave-offering (Lev. xxiii. 10-11). The day on which the 'omer of the...
'OMER, LAG BE- – Thirty-third day in the period of the counting of the 'omer ("Lag" = , the numerical value of which is 33), corresponding to the 18th day of Iyyar. This day is celebrated as a semi-holiday, although the reason for this...
ONA'AH – Term applied to the sale of an article at so much more, or to the purchase of an article at so much less, than its market value that fraud or the taking of an undue advantage is presumed. Were not ona'ah thus construed in the...
OPATOW, SAMUEL B. ELEAZAR – Rabbi of Prossnitz, Moravia, in the sixteenth century; born in Bohemia. He was the author of "Ḥiddushe " (Prossnitz, 1602 or 1618), novellæ and responsa on the marriage laws of the treatises Ketubot and Ḳiddushin of the...
OPPENHEIM, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM – Austrian rabbi, cabalist, liturgist, mathematician, and bibliophile; born at Worms 1664; died at Prague Sept. 12, 1736. After studying at Metz under Gershon Oulif, Oppenheim married Genendel, the daughter of Leffmann Behrends...
ORAL LAW – Meaning. Term used to denote the laws and statutes which, in addition to the Pentateuch, God gave to Moses. According to the rabbinical interpretation of Ex. xxxiv. 27, the words indicate that besides the written law— —God gave...
ORDEAL – A form of judicial trial wherein supernatural aid was invoked in place of evidence; an appeal to the immediate judgment of God. The ordeal (Anglo-Saxon, "ordel" = "judgment") was widely disseminated among the Aryan peoples. It...
ORION – One of the constellations. The Septuagint translates "Kesil" in Isa. xiii. 10 and Job xxxviii. 31 by "Orion"; the Targum renders it in these two passages and in Job ix. 9 by "Nefila" (lit. "giant"), while the Peshiṭta in Amos v....
ORNSTEIN, MORDECAI ZEEB – Austrian rabbinic scholar; died at Lemberg Oct. 28, 1837; son of Jacob Meshullam Ornstein, rabbi of that city, by whom he was instructed in Talmudic and rabbinical literature. At an early age he showed remarkable capacity, and...