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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CZERNOWITZ – Capital of the province of Bukowina, Austria, situated near the banks of the Pruth, about 150 miles from Lemberg. Jews were living here and in a few other places in Bukowina when the Austrians took possession of the country in...
DAGON – Philistine god, referred to in Judges xvi. 23; I Sam. v. 2-5; and I Macc. x. 83, xi 4; but not in Isa. xlvi. 1, where Δαγων, in "Cod. Alex.," is a mistake for αβά; nor in I Chron. x. 10, where is a corruption of (I Sam. xxxi....
DANIEL – Biblical Data: In Hebrew (1) ; (2) . (1) The form without the (see Masorah Magna to Ezek. xiv. 14) occurs in Ezek. xiv. 14, 20; xxviii. 3; also in a Palmyrene inscription (see De Vogué, "Syrie Centrale," No. 93). The...
DANZ, JOHANN ANDREAS – German theologian and Hebraist; born at Sundhausen, near Gotha, 1654; died at Jena Dec. 22, 1727. Danz studied at Wittenberg and at Hamburg, where he learned Hebrew under Esdras Edzardi; and he became professor of Oriental...
DATHAN – Son of Eliab, of the tribe of Reuben. He conspired with his brother Abiram against Moses and Aaron. See Abiram.E. C. M. Sel.
DAVID BEN MENAHEM COHEN – Dutch scholar; lived at Amsterdam in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Mizmor le-Todah" (Song of Thanksgiving), edited by Elijah Aboab, Amsterdam, 1644. It describes in Judæo-German rimes the...
DAVID, MEYER MICHEL – Hanoverian court banker and agent of the board of finance; born in Hanover in the middle of the eighteenth century. He was a son of Michel David of Hanover, the friend of Moses Mendelssohn. Michel David made a gift to his native...
DEATH, VIEWS AND CUSTOMS CONCERNING – In Biblical and Apocryphal Literature: The ancient Hebrews expected to "be gathered to [or sleep with] their fathers" when death befell them (Gen. xxv. 8, xlvii. 30), and feared only the idea of going down to Sheol mourning (ib....
DILLMANN, AUGUST – German theologian and Orientalist; born at Illingen, Württemberg, April 25, 1823; died at Berlin July 4, 1894. When Hengstenberg died in 1869, Dillmann was invited to Berlin as his successor. Besides preparing a catalogue of...
DOEG – Biblical Data: An Edomite; chief of the herdsmen of Saul. When David, warned by Jonathan, fled from Saul to the priest Abimelech at Nob, he found Doeg there. On pretense of being on the king's service, David was hospitably...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the...
EZRA THE SCRIBE – Biblical Data: A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( : Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The...
FASTING AND FAST-DAYS – Fasting is usually defined as a withholding of all natural food from the body for a determined period voluntarily appointed for moral or religious ends. This institution has found wide acceptance in all religious systems,...
FEAR OF GOD – The Hebrew equivalent of "religion." It is the mainspring of religion, morality, and wisdom, and is productive of material prosperity and well-being. Who fears God will refrain from doing the things that would be displeasing to...
FEAR OF MAN – Respect of parents is especially enjoined by both Scripture and Talmud (Ex. xx. 12; Deut. v. 16). The Talmud makes reverence for parents equal in importance to reverence for God (Ḳid. 30b), for parents are God's representatives...
FERRARA – In the Thirteenth Century. City in central Italy; capital of the province and former duchy of the same name. The Jewish community of Ferrara was one of the most flourishing and important in Italy, and it gave to Judaism a number...
FETTERS – Chains or shackles by which the feet may be fastened either together or to some heavy object. The most usual term for fetters in the Bible is "neḥushtayim" (Judges xvi. 21; II Sam. iii. 34; II Kings xxv. 7; Jer. xxxix. 7, lii....
FORGIVENESS – Forgiveness is one of the attributes ascribed to Yhwh: "to the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness" (Dan. ix. 9; comp. Ex. xxxiv. 6-7; Num. xiv. 18 et seq.; Ps. lxxxvi. 5; Jonah iv. 2). The condition essential to God's...
FRANCE – Country forming the most westerly part of Central Europe.Church Laws Against Jews. —Roman-Gallic Epoch: The banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul in the year 6 (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 13, §§ 2-3; idem, "B. J." ii. 7, § 3;...
FRIENDSHIP – Personal attachment to an individual due to mutual interests or arising from close intimacy or acquaintance.The historical books of the Bible furnish several instances of genuine friendship; and the pithy sayings of the Wisdom...
FUNERAL ORATION – The expression of grief over the dead body of a relative or friend in words of lamentation or of praise is of very early origin among the Jews (Gen. xxiii. 2; l. 10, 11). In the Bible specimens are found of such lamentations,...
FURTADO, ABRAHAM – French politician; born at London 1756; died at Bordeaux Jan. 29, 1816. His parents were members of a Portuguese Marano family, and resided first in Lisbon. During the earthquake which destroyed that city in 1755 his father was...
FURTADOHEINE, CÉCILE CHARLOTTE – French philanthropist; born at Paris 1821; died at Rocquencourt (Seine-et-Oise) 1896. Her ancestors on both sides were prominent in French politics. She married Charles Heine, the cousin of the poet, and at her husband's death...
GABBAI – Tax-collector; in modern usage, treasurer of a synagogue. In Talmudic times the alms of the congregation appear to have been collected by two persons (B. B. 8b), but the term "gabbai" seems to have been restricted to publicans...
GADARENES – Inhabitants of Gadara, known from an alleged miracle of Jesus (Matt. viii.; Mark v.; Luke viii.) in which he transferred the demons afflicting a man to a number of swine, that thereupon rushed down a steep hill and perished....