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HEZEKIAH – 1. King of Judah (726-697 B.C.).—Biblical Data: Son of Ahaz and Abi or Abijah; ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five and reigned twenty-nine years (II Kings xviii. 1-2; II Chron. xxix. 1). Hezekiah was the opposite of...
HEZEKIAH (the Zealot) – A martyr whom some scholars identify with Hezekiah ben Garon of the Talmud (Shab. 12a, 13b, 98b, 99a). He fought for Jewish freedom and the supremacy of the Jewish law at the time when Herod was governor of Galilee (47 B.C.)....
HEZEKIAH BEN MANOAH – French exegete of the thirteenth century. In memory of his father, who lost his right hand through his stead-fastness in the faith, Hezekiah wrote (about 1240) a cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch, under the title...
HIBAT ALLAH ABU AL-BARAKAT B. 'ALI B. MALKA (MALKAN) AL-BALADI – Arabian physician of the twelfth century; born in Bassora. He went to Bagdad in order to study medicine under the physician Sa'id b. Hibat Allah; and as the latter did not admit Jews or Christians to his lectures, Abu al-Barakat...
HIEREI – Term used to denote the priests( ) in the constitution of the Jewish community in Rome. Even so late as the fourth century of the common era they had a distinct position in the religious life of the community, and ranked higher...
HILKIAH – 1. High priest in the reign of Josiah (II Kings xxii. 4 et seq.). It is probable that he was the Hilkiah ben Shallum who figures in the genealogy of high priests in I Chron. v. 39 (A. V. vi. 13), and that he was, consequently,...
HORAYOT – The name of a Talmudic treatise in Seder Neziḳin ("damages"), the fourth in order of the six "sedarim" of the Mishnah. In the Mishnah edition it occupies the tenth and last place in the "seder"; in the Babylonian Talmud the...
HOSHAIAH RABBAH, ROBA, BERABBI – Palestinian amora of the first amoraic generation (about 200 C.E.); compiler of baraitot explaining the Mishnah-Tosefta. He was closely associated with the successors of Rabbi, as was his father with Rabbi himself. Hoshaiah's...
HOSHAIAH ZE'ERA DE-MIN ḤABRAYA – Palestinian amora of the third amoraic period (died about 350 C.E.). In the Tosafot it is claimed that "Ḥabraya" was the name of his birth-place, but according to Rashi the word means a "society of colleagues," and the surname...
HULDAH – Biblical Data: Prophetess; wife of Shallum, the keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. She dwelt in the second quarter of Jerusalem. It seems that Huldah enjoyed great consideration as a prophetess, for when Hilkiah...
ḤULLIN – Treatise of the Babylonian Talmud, including Mishnah, Tosefta, and Gemara; it is not found in the Jerusalem Talmud. While it is included in the Seder Ḳodashim, it treats mainly of non-consecrated things and of things used as the...
HUSBAND AND WIFE – Legal Relations: As a punishment for her initiative in the first sin, the wife is to be subjected to her husband, and he is to rule over her (Gen. iii. 16). The husband is her owner ("ba'al"); and she is regarded as his...
IMMANUEL – This name occurs only thrice in the Bible, in Isa. vii. 14 and viii. 8, 10 (in the last-cited verse the rendering "God is with us" is given in the English versions). According to the Targum Yerushalmi, "Immanuel" in the first...
INCENSE – An aromatic substance which exhales perfume during combustion; the odor of spices and gums burned as an act of worship. In ancient times, on account of the extreme heat of the Orient, incense was used, as it is to-day, to a much...
JACOB, BLESSING OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the chapter containing the prophetic utterances of Jacob concerning the destiny of his twelve sons as the fathers and representatives of the twelve tribes (Gen. xlix. 1-27). It is called thus after...
JACOB, BLESSING OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the chapter containing the prophetic utterances of Jacob concerning the destiny of his twelve sons as the fathers and representatives of the twelve tribes (Gen. xlix. 1-27). It is called thus after...
JOB, THE BOOK OF – Complaint and Rejoinders. —Biblical Data: A dramatic poem in forty-two chapters, the characters in which are Job, his wife (mentioned only once, ii. 9), his three friends—Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar—Elihu, and God (see Drama,...
JOHN OF CAPUA – Italian convert to Christianity, and translator; flourished between 1262 and 1269. He translated Rabbi Joel's Hebrew version of "Kalilah wa-Dimnah" into Latin under the title "Directorium Vite Humane"; and his translation was...
JUDAH B. AMMI – Palestinian amora of the third generation (4th cent.); the son, perhaps, of the celebrated R. Ammi (Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." iii. 715). His house was a rendezvous for scholars, and R. Ze'era, when exhausted by study, would sit...
JUDAH BEN MOSES OF ARLES – A scholar of the second half of the eleventh century who enjoyed a great reputation and authority not only in France, but throughout the Rhine districts. One of Rashi's contemporaries, Nathan b. Makir of Mayence, mentions him as...
JUDAH B. PEDAYA – Palestinian amora of the first generation (3d cent.); nephew of Bar Ḳappara. Among his numerous pupils the most important was the haggadist Joshua b. Levi, who claimed to have received numerous halakot from Judah (Ex. R. vi.;...
KARLSRUHE (CARLSRUHE) – German city; capital of the grand duchy of Baden. Jews began to settle there soon after its foundation (1715) by Margrave Carl Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach; they were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to...
KIL'AYIM – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and the Palestinian Talmud. It belongs to the order Zera'im, and deals with the exact definition of the Pentateuchal prohibitions (Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 9-11) which forbid the...
ḲODASHIM – Position in Mishnah. Name of the fifth of the six orders ("sedarim") of the Mishnah, so called because all the treatises belonging to it contain regulations and laws concerning sacrifices, priestly contributions, and other...
LANDLORD AND TENANT – I. Farming Land. The Mishnah and later authorities speak of two kinds of tenants—the "aris," or the tenant on shares, the landlord receiving "one-half, one-third, or one-fourth," and the "ḥoker," or the tenant at a fixed rental,...