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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BERLIN, SAMUEL – German jurist; born at Bamberg Oct 11, 1807; died at Fürth Dec. 21, 1896. He was a son of Löb Berlin, of Bamberg, afterward "Landesrabbiner" at Cassel, and was educated at the University of Munich, where he obtained his LL.D....
BERLINER, ABRAHAM (ADOLF) – German theologian; historian; born in Obersitzko, province of Posen, Prussia, May 2, 1833; received his first education under his father, who was teacher in Obersitzko. He continued his education under various rabbis, preparing...
BERMANN, ADOLF – Hungarian writer; born at Presburg in 1867. After completing the study of law he became an employee of the Hungarian Credit Bank. Under the influence of his brother-in-law, Joseph Kiss, the well-known writer of ballads, he early...
BERMANN, MORIZ – Austrian author; born at Vienna March 16, 1823; died there June 12, 1895. Bermann, who came of a family of publishers, was educated for a musical career; but after the death of his father he devoted himself for a time to...
BERN, MAXIMILIAN – German author; born at Kherson, South Russia, Nov. 18, 1849, where his father practised medicine. On the latter's death Bern and his mother went to Vienna that he might complete his education. The loss of his fortune forced him...
BERN, OLGA – Austrian author; wife of Maximilian Bern; born at Vienna July 5, 1865. She went on the stage under her own name, Wohlbrück, and while at the Odeon, Paris, in 1887, married the German author Bern. She abandoned the stage for...
BERNARD – German poetess and authoress; born at Breslau, Silesia, about 1770; died about 1814. On her mother's side Bernard was a granddaughter of Jonathan Eybeschütz, the famous rabbi of Prague and Hamburg.At the age of about twenty she...
BERNAYS, JACOB – German philologist; born at Hamburg Sept. 18, 1824; died at Bonn May 26, 1881. He was the eldest son of the ḥakam Isaac Bernays, who carefully guided his elementary education until he was sent, in 1844, to Bonn to attend the...
BERNAYS, MICHAEL – German historian of literature; born at Hamburg Nov. 27, 1834; died at Carlsruhe Feb. 25, 1897; son of Ḥakam and brother of Jacob Bernays. He attended the Johanneum in his native city, where, principally under the guidance of...
BERNFELD, SIMON – German publicist and rabbi; born in Stanislau, Galicia, Jan. 6, 1860. His father, who was a good rabbinical scholar and also well versed in secular knowledge, was his first instructor. He took to writing Hebrew very early; and...
BERNHARDT, MARTIN – German neuropath and medical author; born at Potsdam April 10, 1844. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native place and at the University of Berlin, where he studied under Virchow and Traube. After graduating as M.D. in...
BERNHARDT, SARAH (ROSINE BERNARD) – French actress; born at Paris Oct. 22, 1844, of Dutch Jewish parentage. She was received into the Roman Catholic Church at the request of her father. Her early years were spent at the Convent Grand-Champs, Versailles, where she...
BERNHARDY, GOTTFRIED – German philologist and historian of literature; born at Landsberg in the Neumark, province of Brandenburg, March 20, 1800; died at Halle May 14, 1875. His father was a merchant who had been successful and prosperous, but who in...
BERNHEIM, ERNST – German historian; born at Hamburg Feb. 19, 1850. On completing his elementary and preparatory studies, he attended the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, Strasburg, and Göttingen. It was from Strasburg that he received his...
BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE – French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. He received his education in his native town and at the University of Strasburg, whence he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1867. The same year he became a...
BERNICH, SOLOMON – Scholar, poet, and adventurer of doubtful origin, who appeared in Holland about 1670 and attracted much attention. He spoke Greek, Latin, Italian, French, and Dutch with equal facility, and was able to recite by heart whole...
BERNSTEIN, AARON (DAVID) – German publicist, scientist, and reformer; born April 6, 1812, in Danzig; died Feb. 12, 1884, in Berlin. His was one of the most versatile and productive Jewish minds of the nineteenth century. Intended by his parents for a...
BERNSTEIN, BÉLA – Hungarian rabbi and author; born in Várpalota, Hungary, 1868; was graduated as Ph.D. at Leipsic, 1890, and as rabbi at the Budapest Seminary in 1893; since 1894 has officiated as rabbi at Szombathely (Stein-am-Anger). He...
BERNSTEIN, EDUARD – Socialist leader, editor, and author; born in Berlin 1850. Beginning life as a clerk in a bank, Bernstein's mind became early imbued with socialistic ideas. In 1872 he joined the Social-Democratic party, and in 1878 gave up...
BERNSTEIN, ELSA – German dramatist; daughter of Heinrich Porges, the friend of Richard Wagner; born at Vienna; educated at Munich; and, for a short time, on the stage. An afiliction of the eyes forcing her to retire, she thenceforth devoted...
BERNSTEIN, HUGO KARL – Hungarian dramatist; born in Budapest 1808; died at Milan 1877. He began the study of medicine, but lacking means sufficient to continue it, he entered the army, where within twenty months he succeeded in laying by a sum that...
BERNSTEIN, JULIUS – German physiologist and medical writer; born at Berlin Dec. 8, 1839; son of Aaron Bernstein (1822-84). He studied at the University of Berlin, whence he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1862. In 1865 he was admitted as...
BERNSTEIN, MAX – German author; born May 13, 1854, at Fürth, Bavaria; now (1902) practising law at Munich. His literary activity is directed mainly to the stage. The most noteworthy of Bernstein's comedies are: "Cœur-Dame," "Mein Neuer Hut,"...
BERR, EMILE – French journalist; born at Lunéville, France, June 6, 1855. Having finished his classical studies at the Lyceum of Vanves and afterward at the Louis-le-Grand Lyceum in Paris, he engaged in a commercial career from 1875 to 1880...
BERR, GEORGE – French actor and dramatist; born at Paris July 31, 1867; brother of Emile Berr. He was educated at the lyceums of Vanves and Charlemagne, but, yielding to an irresistible love for the stage, he, at the age of sixteen, left his...