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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BERR ISAAC BERR OF TURIQUE – French manufacturer; born at Nancy in 1744; died at Turique, near Nancy, Nov. 5, 1828. He came of a rich and estimable family; received an excellent education, especially in Hebrew and rabbinical literature—in the latter from...
BERR, MICHEL – An Author at Twenty. The first Jew to practise in France as a barrister; born at Nancy 1780; diedthere July 4, 1843. His father, Isaac Berr de Turique, who made himself known by his great ability as a writer and as a champion of...
BERTOLIO, ABBÉ – French cleric; member of the Commune of Paris in 1790. The National Assembly conferred citizenship upon the Jews of Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Avignon Jan. 28, 1790; but deferred granting it to those of Alsace and Lorraine. Hence,...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BEUGNOT, AUGUSTE ARTHUR, COUNT – French statesman and scholar; born at Bar-sur-Aube March, 1797; died at Paris March 15, 1865. Originally he adopted the profession of advocate, but soon abandoned it in order to devote himself entirely to the study of history,...
BIACH, ALOIS – Austrian physician and medical writer; born in Lettowitz, Moravia, Austria, May 1, 1849. He was educated at the gymnasium at Brünn and at the University of Vienna. After graduating as M. D. in 1873, he established himself in...
BIAL, RUDOLF – Violinist, conductor, composer, and manager; born at Habelschwerdt, Silesia, Aug. 26, 1834; died at New York Nov. 13, 1881. He began his career as a violinist in an orchestra at Breslau, and then made a tour of Australia and...
BICK, JACOB SAMUEL – Austrian author; born in the eighteenth century; died in Brody, 1831. He was a satirical writer of force and ability, and one of the ablest pioneers of the "haskalah" (culture) movement among the Jews of Galicia. His...
BIE, OSKAR – German archeologist and professor at the Technische Hochschule at Charlottenburg, near Berlin; born at Breslau Feb. 9, 1864. He studied at the gymnasium and university of his native town. Besides his position at the Technische...
BIEDERMANN, MICHAEL LAZAR – Austrian jeweler and merchant; born at Presburg, Hungary, Aug. 13, 1769; died at Vienna Aug. 24, 1843. When fifteen years old he went to Vienna and was apprenticed to an engraver. In 1787 he gained a prize for modeling in wax,...
BING, ALBERT – Austrian physician; born at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Sept. 20, 1844. He attended the gymnasium in his native city, and studied medicine at the University of Vienna, where he completed his course in 1870. The following year he...
BING, MEYER HERMANN – Danish art publisher and manufacturer; born at Copenhagen June 4, 1807; died there Sept. 15, 1883. As a boy he was employed in his father's book and stationery store, assuming charge of it with his younger brother at their...
BIRCH-HIRSCHFELD, FELIX VICTOR – German pathologist and medical author; born at Kluvensiek, near Rendsburg, in the province of Holstein, Prussia, May 2, 1842; died at Leipsic Nov. 19, 1899. He received his education at Kiel and Leipsic, graduating from the...
BISCHITZ DE HEVES, JOHANNA – Hungarian philanthropist; born in Tata in 1827; died in Budapest March 28, 1898; daughter of a porcelain manufacturer and wife of David Bischitz. She was the founder and president of the Jewish Women's Association, and the...
BISCHOFFSHEIM, LOUIS RAPHAEL – French banker and philanthropist; born in Mayence, Germany, in 1800; died in Paris, Nov. 14, 1873. His father's sudden death, combined with the general upheaval of public affairs that followed the events of 1815, compelled...
BISCHOFFSHEIM, RAPHAEL JONATHAN – Belgian financier and philanthropist; born at Mayence in 1808; died at Brussels Feb. 6, 1883. He left his native town when quite young and went to Belgium. Endowed with good judgment, being a tireless worker, and having early...
BISCHOFFSHEIM, RAPHAEL JONATHAN – Belgian financier and philanthropist; born at Mayence in 1808; died at Brussels Feb. 6, 1883. He left his native town when quite young and went to Belgium. Endowed with good judgment, being a tireless worker, and having early...
BISCHOFFSHEIM, RAPHAEL JONATHAN – Belgian financier and philanthropist; born at Mayence in 1808; died at Brussels Feb. 6, 1883. He left his native town when quite young and went to Belgium. Endowed with good judgment, being a tireless worker, and having early...
BISCHOFFSHEIM, RAPHAEL (NATHAN) – Merchant and prominent philanthropist; born at Bischofsheim-on-the-Tauber, 1773; died at Mayence Jan. 22, 1814. He went to Mayence during the French Revolution, and from a small merchant became a purveyor to the army....
BLAU, FRITZ – Austrian chemist; born at Vienna April 5, 1865. He received his education at the gymnasium and university of his native city, and was graduated as doctor of philosophy in 1886, becoming a member of the university of the Austrian...