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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
ASSING, DAVID ASSUR – German physician and poet; born at Königsberg in 1787; died April 25, 1842. He studied at the universities of Tübingen, Halle, Vienna, and Göttingen. He received his doctorate from the University of Göttingen Aug. 26, 1807...
ASSING, LUDMILLA – German authoress; born in Hamburg Feb. 22, 1821; died March 25, 1880, in Florence, Italy. She was the daughter of Dr. David Assing and Rosa Maria Assing, sister of Varnhagen von Ense. After the death of her parents she removed...
ASSON, MICHELANGELO – Italian physician and medical author; born at Verona June 21, 1802; died at Venice Dec. 2, 1877. Asson's father dying while his son was still an infant, the family was left in such straitened circumstances that an uncle...
ASTRUC, ELIE-ARISTIDE – French rabbi and author; born at Bordeaux, Nov. 12, 1831. He received his early education in his native city and took a course of study at the rabbinical college of Metz, to which he was sent with a scholarship by the community...
ASTRUC, ZACHARIE – French sculptor, painter, and author; born at Angers, department of Maine-et-Loire, in 1839. While still a boy he left his native city to seek his fortune in the French metropolis. In 1859 he founded, in collaboration with...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
AUB, HIRSCH – Rabbi and Talmudist; born, 1796, in Baiersdorf, a small town near Erlangen, the birthplace of a number of prominent Jews; died at Munich, 1876. He studied in Prague and became known as a Talmudist. In 1827 he was elected chief...
AUB, JOSEPH – German rabbi; cousin of Hirsch Aub; born at Beiersdorf, in Bavaria, 1805; died May 22, 1880. He held various rabbinical posts for fifty years, first in Baireuth (1830-50), then in Mayence (1850-65), and, finally, in Berlin from...
AUB, LUDWIG – Author and poet; born Aug. 4, 1862, in Munich, Germany. He is a grandson of the rabbi Hirsch Aub, of Munich. When his father, Max Aub, a lawyer, was recalled to Munich from the little town of Uffenheim, Franconia, where he held...
AUER, LEOPOLD – Hungarian violinist; son of a poor house-painter; born in Veszprim, Hungary, June 7, 1845. His musical talent manifested itself early. When only four years old he marched in front of the revolutionary troops, beating the drum,...
AUERBACH, BARUCH – Educator and philanthropist; born in Inowrazlaw, in the province of Posen, Prussia, Aug. 14, 1793; died at Berlin, Jan. 22, 1864. He was the founder and life-long director of the Jewish Orphan Asylum, Berlin. Being the son of a...
AUERBACH, BENJAMIN HIRSCH – One of the most prominent leaders of modern German orthodoxy; born at Neuwied in 1808; died at Halberstadt Sept. 30, 1872. His father, Abraham Auerbach—a descendant of an old rabbinical family which traced its origin back to...
AUERBACH, BERTHOLD (BARUCH) – German author; born in the Black Forest village of Nordstetten, Germany, Feb. 28, 1812; died at Cannes, France, Feb. 8, 1882. He was one of eleven children, and received his earliest training from a well-equipped German teacher...
AUERBACH, FELIX – German physicist; born Nov. 12, 1856, in Berlin. He was only twenty years old when he graduated from the university of his native city, and received the degree of Ph.D. upon the presentation of an excellent thesis,...
AUERBACH, ISAAC LEVIN – A German preacher, educator, and author; born at Inowraclaw, Prussia, March 21, 1791; died at Dessau July 5, 1853. He was the son of Levin Isaac Auerbach, rabbi of Inowraclaw, and brother of Baruch Auerbach, the well-known...
AUERBACH, JACOB – Educator and author; born at Emmendingen, Baden, Nov. 14, 1810; died Oct. 31, 1887. He received his early education in Carlsruhe, where, in the autumn of 1827, he met his cousin and, later, brother-in-law, Berthold Auerbach, the...
AUERBACH, LEOPOLD – German physician and biologist; born at Breslau April 27, 1828; died there Sept. 30, 1897. He studied in Breslau, Leipsic, and Berlin, receiving his doctorate in 1849. The following year he began the practise of medicine in...
AUSPITZ, HEINRICH – Austrian dermatologist; born at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Sept. 2, 1835; died May 23, 1886, at Vienna, barely two years after succeeding Zeissl. Auspitz acquired his medical training at the University of Vienna, where he was a pupil...
AUSPITZ, JACOB – Geographical writer; lived at Budapest, Hungary, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Beër ha-Luḥot" (Explanation of the Tablets), consisting of five Biblical maps, copied from a Latin source,...
AUSPITZ, RUDOLF – Austrian member of parliament and leading manufacturer; born at Vienna July 7, 1837. He is a member of one of the oldest and most prominent Jewish families of Moravia, which settled in the city of Auspitz, whence it derived its...
AVÉ-LALLEMENT, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN BENEDICT – Noted criminologist; born in Lübeck May 23, 1809; died there July 20, 1892. In his standard work, "Das Deutsche Gaunertum," Leipsic, 1858-62, he devotes a chapter to the Jews, in which he expresses views unfavorable to their...
AVENEL, GEORGES – French author; born at Chaumont-en-Vexin, department of the Oise, France, Dec. 31, 1828; died at Bougival July 1, 1876. He was a brother of Paul Avenel. Avenel devoted the greater part of his life to a study of the French...
AVENEL, HENRI MAYER – French author; born in Paris, March 7, 1853. He is an adopted son of Paul Avenel. He began his career by editing "L' Événement," the daily political Parisian paper, and several departmental newspapers. In 1888 he took charge of...
AVENEL, PAUL – French author; born at Chaumont-en-Vexin, department of the Oise, France, Oct. 9, 1823. After a brief course in medicine at the University of Paris, he, in 1850, abandoned his studies to devote himself exclusively to literature....
AVIGDOR, JACOB – Chief rabbi ("ḥakam bashi") at Constantinople from 1860 to 1863; born 1794; died 1874. He was a capable Talmudist and conversant with several foreign languages. Avigdor was instrumental in organizing several institutions in the...