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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
AVIGDOR, JULES D' – Banker, and member of the Piedmont Parliament; born in Nice; died at Paris February, 1856. He was a grandson of Isaac Samuel d'Avigdor, secretary of the Paris Sanhedrin; See Sanhedrin. He was the first Jew elected by his...
AYAS, LÉON – Interpreter of the French army in the Algerian campaign against Abd-el-Kader; died 1846. He received several wounds in the expeditions in the Oran, during which he captured one of Abd-el-Kader's lieutenants.At the battle against...
AZEVEDO, DANIEL COHEN D' – akam in Amsterdam; died in 1823; son and successor of the Ḥakam David Cohen d'Azevedo. He is the author of a sermon—"Sermão Heroico pregado no K. K. de Talmud Torah en Amsterdam," Aug. 3, 1809 (eulogistic sermon, preached in the...
AZOTUS – 1. The equivalent of Ashdod; found in the Apocrypha (Judith ii. 28; I Macc. iv. 15, etc.) and in the New Testament (Acts viii. 40).2. Mount of Azotus (I Macc. ix. 15), where Judas Maccabeus was killed. It is perhaps identical...
BAAR, HERMAN – American educator; born in 1826 at Stadthagen, near Hanover, Germany. He received a preliminary education at the gymnasium of Hanover, and, after graduation, took a course in philology and theology at the University of...
BACH, EMILIE – Artist and journalist; born at Neuschloss, Bohemia, July 2, 1840; died at Vienna April 29, 1890. She was directress of the royal school for artistic embroidery, and published on this subject two works: "Muster Stilvoller...
BACH, JOSEPH – Hungarian rabbi; born in 1784; died at Budapest Feb. 3, 1866. After I. N. Mannheimer, he was the first German preacher of a Jewish congregation in Austria-Hungary. At Alt-Ofen, his birthplace, he began to ground himself early in...
BACH, KARL DANIEL FRIEDRICH – German painter; born at Potsdam May, 1756; died at Breslau April 8, 1829 (according to some sources in 1826). As his father was a merchant and an elder (Landesältester) of the Brandenburg Jewry, Karl was enabled to obtain from...
BACHER, EDUARD – Austrian jurisconsult and journalist; born at Pastelberg March 17, 1846. Graduating from the University of Vienna, he engaged in practise as an advocate, in which career he displayed such marked ability that some years later the...
BACHER, JULIUS – German playwright and novelist; born in Ragnit, eastern Prussia, Aug. 8, 1810. He studied medicine in Königsberg, and settled there as a physician in 1837; but after ten years he abandoned his medical career to devote himself...
BACHER, WILHELM – Hungarian scholar and Orientalist; son of the Hebrew writer Simon; born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary, Jan. 12, 1850; he attended the Hebrew schools in Szucsán and in his native town, and passed through the higher classes of...
BACHRICH, SIGISMUND – Hungarian violinist and operatic composer; born at Zsambokrét, Hungary, Jan. 23, 1841. He began the study of the violin with Böhm at the Vienna Conservatory in 1851, from which institution he was graduated in 1857. He then...
BAECK, SAMUEL – German rabbi; born at Kromau, Moravia, April 1, 1834. His father, Nathan, was rabbi in Kromau; his grandfather, Abraham, rabbi in Holitsch, Hungary. Baeck married the daughter of Abraham Platschek, chief rabbi of Moravia, and...
BAER, ABRAHAM – German cantor, musician, and composer; born in Russia Dec. 26, 1834; died at Gothenburg, Sweden, March 7, 1894. His father destined him for the rabbinate; but his love for music and the song of the synagogue caused him to elect...
BAER (ABRAHAM), ADOLF – German physician and medico-forensic author; born in the province of Posen, Prussia, Dec. 26, 1834; educated at the universities of Vienna, Prague, and Berlin. From the last-named institution he received his degree of doctor of...
BAER, JOSEPH – Founder of a firm of booksellers of Frankfort-on-the Main; born in the last half of the eighteenth century; died in 1851. A small second-hand bookseller's stall was established by Baer at Bockenheim in 1785. After encountering...
BAER, SELIGMAN (SEKEL) – Writer on the Masorah, and editor of the Hebrew Bible; born at Mosbach (Baden), Sept. 18, 1825; died at Biebrich-on-the-Rhine, March, 1897.As early as 1844, Baer commenced his Masoretic studies. He belonged to the school of Wolf...
BAERWALD, HERMANN – German educator; born at Nakel, in the province of Posen, Nov. 7, 1828. His academic education began at the gymnasium of Konitz, continued at the Elisabeth-Gymnasium of Breslau, supplemented by a couple of years spent under the...
BAGINSKY, ADOLF ARON – German physician, and professor of diseases of children in the Berlin University; born May 22, 1843, at Ratibor (Prussian Silesia). At the completion of his highschool education at the gymnasium of his native town (1861), he...
BAGINSKY, BENNO – German physician; born at Ratibor, Prussia, May 24, 1848; privat-docent of the diseases of the ear, nose, and larynx, at the University of Berlin; and honorary professor. He was graduated from the gymnasium in his native town...
BAKONYI, SAMUEL – Hungarian deputy and publicist; born in Debreczin July 22, 1862. After graduating in law at the University of Budapest, he settled in his native town, where he soon became prominent in the public affairs of the city and the...
BAKRI, JACOB COHEN – French consul at Algiers before its conquest by France; born in Algiers in 1763; died at Paris Nov. 23, 1836. Immensely rich, and highly esteemed for his abilities and character, he was appointed consul under the Restoration. In...
BAKST, OSSIP ISAAKOVICH – Son of Isaac and brother of Nicolai Bakst; died Oct. 8, 1895; was employed as interpreter (dragoman) in the Asiatic Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry, and is known also as a publisher of Russian translations of...
BALASSA, JOSEPH – Hungarian philologist; born 1864, in Baja, Hungary; studied in Budapest, where he graduated in philosophy, and where he holds a professorship in the gymnasium. His writings upon philology and general phonetics have been...
BALLIN, JOEL – Danish engraver, born in Vejle, Jutland, March 22, 1822; died in Copenhagen, March 21, 1885. He was a son of a merchant, Joseph Ballin, and his wife, Hanne Peiser. At the age of eleven he went to Copenhagen to study art in order...