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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BARUCH – Polish mechanic of the beginning of the eighteenth century; lived in Pogrebishche. He produced two magnificent brass candelabra for the synagogue there, which are still extant. One of them was intended for the Ḥanukkah festival,...
BARUCH, JACOB – President ("Baumeister") of the Jewish congregation of Frankfort-on-the-Main at the beginning of the nineteenth century; father of Ludwig Börne. Jacob's father was financial agent of the elector of Cologne. Baruch is described...
BARZILAI, GIUSEPPE – Italian lawyer and Biblical commentator; born at Gradisca, near Triest, Austria, in 1828; studied at Casalmaggiore, province of Cremona. After having completed his law studies at the University of Padua, Barzilai established...
BARZILAI, SALVATORE – Italian deputy; born in Triest, Austria, July 5, 1860. Son of the Orientalist and archeologist Giuseppe Barzilai; studied law at the University of Bologna.In 1878 Barzilai was tried and condemned for treason against Austria,...
BASCH, ABRAHAM – German poet and teacher; born at Posen July 17, 1800; died at Berlin Sept. 24, 1841. Basch was a somewhat precocious child, being able to expound the Talmud when twelve years old. A year later he became secretary to the mayor of...
BASCH, ÀRPÀD – Hungarian painter; born at Budapest 1873. He purposed at first to follow an industrial career, and attended the department of metallurgy at the Staatliche Mittelschule (government school) for one year. He then went to Munich,...
BASCH, GYULA – Hungarian painter; born at Budapest April 9, 1859. After completing his studies at the gymnasium, he attended the polytechnicinstitute at Zurich (1867-72), where he obtained his diploma as engineer. He devoted himself, however,...
BASCH, RAPHAEL – Austrian writer and politician; born at Prague, Bohemia, in 1813. After acquiring at that city a thorough familiarity with Hebrew and the Talmud, and with classics and philosophy, he went as teacher in the primary school of...
BASCH, SAMUEL SIEGFRIED KARL RITTER VON – Austrian physician; born at Prague Sept. 9, 1837; best known as the body-physician of the emperor Maximilian of Mexico. Basch was educated at the universities of Prague and Vienna. In 1857 he studied chemistry at the laboratory...
BASCH, VICTOR – Professor of philosophy at the University of Rennes; born at Budapest, Hungary, in 1863; son of Raphael Basch. Removing in childhood to France, he studied at the Sorbonne; in 1885 he was appointed professor at the University of...
BASEVI, ABRAMO – Italian composer and writer on music; born at Leghorn Dec. 29, 1818; died at Florence November, 1885. At first a physician in Florence (1858), he later devoted himself exclusively to the study of music, and achieved, after hard...
BASEVI, EMMANUELE – Italian physician and medical writer; born at Pisa in 1799; died in Florence Sept. 18, 1869. Basevi studied at the high school of his native city and later at the university there, obtaining his degree in 1817. He devoted the...
BASEVI, JOACHIM – Italian jurisconsult; born at Mantua 1780; died at Milan 1867. His intelligence and culture procured him so much celebrity that he was chosen to defend Andreas Hofer, the Swiss patriot, before the court martial. When the...
BASSANI, HUGO – Italian poet and composer; born in Padua June 5, 1851. He studied in Milan and was one of the favorite scholars of Anthony Bazzini, director of the Milan Conservatory. Bassani's romances—compositions for piano or orchestra—are...
BASSIN, ELIEZER – Missionary at Jassy, Rumania; born about 1840 in the government of Mohilev, Russia. In 1869 he went to Constantinople, where he made the acquaintance of English missionaries who persuaded him to embrace Christianity. He was the...
BÁTOR (BREISACH), SZIDOR – Hungarian composer; born at Budapest Feb. 23, 1860. He passed through the realschule and polytechnic in his native city, and at the same time attended the National Conservatory and the Academy of Music. His teacher in...
BAUER, BRUNO – Christian theologian, philosopher, and historian; born Sept. 6, 1809, at Eisenburg, duchy of Saxe-Altenburg; died April 13, 1882, at Rixdorf, near Berlin.While Bauer regarded emancipation from the thraldom of medievalism as the...
BAUER, JULIUS – Austrian humorist; born at Raab-Sziget, Hungary, Oct. 15, 1853. Bauer was educated at home until 1873, when he went to Vienna to study medicine. Being poor, he wrote for the local comic papers, and, to his surprise, did so well...
BAUER, MARIE-BERNARD – Chaplain of the Tuileries, Paris; born 1829 at Budapest, Hungary; died 1898. Through the Carmelite priest Augustin (whose actual name was Hermann Cohen), Bauer, after an adventurous youth in which he tried all sorts of métiers,...
BAUER, MORITZ – Austrian physician; specialist in vaccination; born at Vienna Feb. 25, 1844. He received his education at his native town, where he attended the gymnasium and university. After obtaining his doctorate in 1870, he was appointed...
BAUMGARTEN, B. KÁROLY – Hungarian jurist; born at Budapest Sept. 21, 1853, where he also finished his education; brother of Isidor Baumgarten. From 1876 to 1892 he practised law in Budapest, at the same time editing the technical journal "Buntetö Jog...
BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL – Austrian author and communal worker; born in Kremsier Jan. 15, 1828. In his youth he frequented various yeshibot, acquiring secular learning in private; and in 1848 he went to Vienna, where he devoted himself to commercial life,...
BAUMGARTEN, ISIDOR – Hungarian jurist; born March 27, 1850, at Budapest, where he completed his education. Upon his graduation as doctor of law he resided abroad for several years. In 1882 he was admitted to the bar, and in 1885 became a lecturer on...
BECHER, ALFRED JULIUS – Austrian journalist, musician, and revolutionist; born at Manchester, England, in 1803 (or 1805); died at Vienna Nov. 23, 1848. He was a son of the founder of the Rhenish-West India Company, and studied law at Heidelberg,...
BECHER, SIEGFRIED – Austrian economist; born at Plany, Bohemia, Feb. 28, 1806; died at Vienna March 4, 1873. He studied at the universities of Prague and Vienna, receiving from the latter the degree of Ph.D. In 1831 he entered the state service; in...