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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BECHER, WOLF – German physician and medical author; born at Filehne, province of Posen, Prussia, May 6, 1862. He received his education at the gymnasium of his native town and at the University of Berlin, whence he was graduated as doctor of...
BECK, ADOLF – Austrian physician and professor of physiology at the University of Lemberg; born Jan. 1, 1863, in Cracow, Galicia, of poor parents. During his academic career Beck supported himself as a private tutor. Upon graduating with...
BECK, JACOB BEN ENOCH – Dayyan and shoḥet at Leipnik, Moravia, at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth He was the author of "Zibḥe Shelamim" (Sacrifices of Peace-Offerings), containing the laws concerning the...
BECK, KARL – Austrian poet; born May 1, 1817, at Baja, Hungary; died April 10, 1879, at Währing, a suburb of Vienna. Although of Jewish parentage, he was brought up in the Protestant Church. Upon his completion of the high-school course in...
BECK, KLINOS – Hungarian singer; born in 1868 at Budapest, where he attended commercial schools. He received the elements of a thorough musical education from Abrányi Kornél, whose pupil he remained throughout his career at the National...
BECK, MIKSA, DE MADARAS – Hungarian financier; born at Bács-Madaras, 1838. His parents settled at Budapest when he was still a child; and it was there that he completed his commercial education. In 1864 he became the business manager of the banking-house...
BECK, MORITZ – Rumanian editor and schooldirector; born at Papa, Hungary. He is the editor of a bimonthly called "Revista Israelita," and author of an educational work in the Rumanian language, entitled "Vocabular Analytici Ebraico-Romanisc,"...
BECK, NÁNDOR, DE MADARAS – President of the Hungarian Hypotheken-Bank; born 1840 at Bács-Madaras; a younger brother of Miksa Beck. He was educated in Pest. In 1867 he obtained a position in the Anglo-Hungarian Bank, and in 1871, when only thirty-one years...
BÉDARRIDE, JASSUDA – French jurisconsult; born at Aix, in Provence, in 1804; died there Feb. 4, 1882. He studied law at the Aix University; and with great promise began in 1825 the practise of law in his native town. In 1847 he was made leader of...
BÉDARRIDES, GUSTAVE EMANUEL – French magistrate; born at Aix-les-Bains Feb. 20, 1817; died at Paris June 5, 1899. Graduating from the University of Paris, he entered public life in 1840 as substitute counselor at the tribunal of Aix. Three years later he...
BEER, AARON – Chief cantor of the Jewish congregation of Berlin; born 1738; died Jan. 3, 1821, in the fiftieth year of his official capacity as cantor. He possessed a well-trained tenor voice of extraordinary compass and rich and powerful...
BEER, ADOLF – Austrian historian and educator; born at Prossnitz, Moravia, Feb. 27, 1831. While still young he came under the influence of men like Gideon Brecher and Hirsch Bär Fassel, and received a careful education in the high school of...
BEER, ADOLPH – Austrian colonel; born 1833 in Prossnitz, Moravia; died Oct. 2, 1888, at Leibach, Carniola. He entered a school for military cadets. On leaving it with the rank of lieutenant, he was appointed professor at the military academy...
BEER, ALEXANDER – Religious teacher and author in Munich, who wrote in 1826, under the direction of Abraham Bing, rabbi of Würzburg, and with the approbation of the "bet din" in Fürth, and other rabbinical authorities of Bavaria, a catechism in...
BEER, AMALIE – German philanthropist and communal worker; died at Berlin June 22 (24), 1854. She was the wife of the banker Jacob Herz Beer, daugher of Liebmann Meyer Wolf (known as "the Berlin Crœsus"), and great-granddaughter of Lipmann Wolf...
BEER, AUGUST – German mathematician; born at Trier July 31, 1825; died at Bonn on the Rhine Nov. 18, 1863. Beer was educated at the technical school and gymnasium of his native town until 1845, when he went to Bonn to study mathematics and the...
BEER, BERNHARD – German author; born July, 1801, at Dresden; died there July 1, 1861. His father, Hirsch Beer, and his mother, Clara, belonged to the Bondi family, which migrated about the middle of the eighteenth century into Saxony, and which...
BEER, BERTHOLD – Austrian medical writer; born at Brünn, Moravia, April 24, 1859. Educated at the high schools of his native city, first at the realschule, then at the gymnasium, he left for Vienna, where he attended the university and graduated...
BEER, JULES – Composer; son of Michael Beer, and nephew of Giacomo Meyerbeer; born 1833 in Paris, where he still (1902) resides. His first attempts at composition were two one-act comic operas, "En Etat de Siège" and "Les Roses de M. de...
BEER, MAX JOSEF – Austrian pianist and composer; born at Vienna Aug. 25, 1851. He studied with Dessoff, and was still very young when, on the recommendation of Hanslick, Dessoff, and Herbeck, he on three different occasions received emolument...
BEER, MICHAEL – German poet; brother of Giacomo Meyerbeer, the composer, and of Wilhelm Beer, the astronomer; born Aug. 19, 1800, in Berlin; died at Munich March 22, 1833.At the Werder Gymnasium, Berlin, where Beer was completing the education...
BEER, MOSES SHABBETHAI – An Italian rabbi; born at Pesaro; died in Rome, May 6, 1835, where he officiated as rabbi from the year 1825. On Dec. 18, 1829, he was admitted to an interview of forty minutes with Pope Leo XII., in order that he might plead on...
BEER, PETER (PEREZ) – Austrian educationalist; born Feb. 19, 1758, at Neubydžow, Bohemia; died Nov. 8, 1838, at Prague. After having received his early training in Bible and Talmud, and—what was unusual in those days—in German and Latin, he entered,...
BEER, WILHELM – Astronomer; brother of Giacomo Meyerbeer, the composer, and of Michael Beer, the poet; born in Berlin Jan. 4, 1797; died there March 27, 1850. Wilhelm shared with his brothers the advantages of a liberal and modern education. At...
BEER-BING, ISAIAH – French journalist; born at Metz in 1759; died in Paris July 21, 1805. He entered early upon a literary career, and at the age of twenty-five published a French translation of the "Phaedon" of Moses Mendelssohn, under the title...