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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BÉGIN, ÉMILE AUGUSTE – French physician and historical writer; born at Metz April 24, 1802 (according to some sources, April 23, 1803); died in Paris May 31, 1888. Meeting with difficulties in his preparation for the polytechnic school, he turned to...
BÉGIN, LOUIS JACQUES – French surgeon and author; born at Liège, Belgium, Nov. 2, 1793; died in Gorriquen, near Lacrouan, Bretagne, April 13, 1859. He studied medicine at the Military Hospital of Metz and in Paris. During the wars of Napoleon I. he...
BEHAR, JACOB JOSEPH HA-ROFE – Chief rabbi of Bagdad about 1843, and author of two Hebrew works; viz., "Shir Ḥadash," a commentary upon the Song of Solomon, printed at Calcutta, 1843, by Eleazar Mari Aaron Saadia Araki, and "Na'awah Tehillah," a commentary...
BEHAR, MOSES SHABBETHAI – Rabbi and author; lived in Salonica at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Author of a Hebrew book, "Torat Mosheh" (Salonica, 1802), a collection of responsa.S. M. Fr.
BEHAR, NISSIM – Palestinian educator; born at Jerusalem, 1848. His father, Rabbi Eliezer Behar, having migrated from Rumania to Palestine, instructed Nissim, when but five years old, in the Talmud. Distress forced the family to leave Jerusalem...
BEHREND, FRIEDRICH JACOB – German physician; born at Neu-Stettin, Pomerania, June 12, 1803; died at Berlin May 30, 1889. He was educated for a mercantile career, and became a clerk at Königsberg, East Prussia, in 1819, but resigned the position in 1821 to...
BEHREND, GUSTAV – German dermatologist, medical writer, and professor of medicine at the University of Berlin; born at Neu-Stettin, Prussia, Jan. 10, 1847. He attended the gymnasium of his native town and the University of Berlin, obtaining his...
BEHREND, ISRAEL B. – German physician and writer on medical subjects; born at Wittenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1804; died at Rostock,March 13, 1867. Educated at the gymnasium and the university at Rostock. In 1827 he received the degree of doctor...
BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH – German jurist; born at Berlin Sept. 13, 1833; finished his studies in his native city at the university. He became "Gerichtsassessor" in 1859; but, deciding upon a scholastic career, he became privat-docent at the Berlin...
BEISER, MOSES – Austrian physician and philanthropist; born in Lemberg April 7, 1807; died in the same city Oct. 12, 1880. At twenty he entered the University of Vienna, and was graduated as M.D. in 1835. He began the practise of medicine as...
BELINFANTE, MOSES BEN ẒADDIḲ HA-KOHEN – A Judæo-Dutch journalist, translator, and writer of school-books; born at The Hague Sept. 24, 1761; died there June 29, 1827. He founded in 1806 the first Judæo-Dutch paper, "Sulamith," devoted especially to the interests of the...
BELLELI, LAZARUS (MENAHEM) – Greek polyglot writer and philologist; born in Corfu, Greece, Oct. 31, 1862. In 1877 he edited "'Aṭṭeret Baḥurim." (The Crown of the Young), being a Hebrew-Greek vocabulary for the Book of Genesis, supplemented by a sketch of...
BEN-DAVID, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Serres, European Turkey, for 16 years (1825-41); born 1788, died 1841; author of a volume of responsa, "Tiferet Adam" (Man's Beauty), Salonica, 1861.S. M. Fr.
BEN DURAND – Diplomat and intermediary between Abd-el-Kader and the French government; died at Algiers in September, 1839. Clauzel and Valée, French governors of Algeria, also availed themselves of his services.S. M. K.
BEN-EZRA, SOLOMON – Chief rabbi of the Jewish community of Smyrna, Asia Minor, in the second half of the eighteenth century, having succeeded his father, Abraham Ben-Ezra; died in 1782. He was the author of a series of Hebrew sermons, "Yad...
BENAMOZEGH, ELIJAH – Italian rabbi; born at Leghorn in 1822; died there Feb. 6, 1900. His father (Abraham) and mother (Clara), natives of Fez, Morocco, died when Elijah was only four years old. The orphan early entered school, where, besides...
BENARY, FRANZ FERDINAND – German Orientalist; born at Cassel March 22, 1805; died at Berlin Feb. 7, 1880. The exact date of Benary's conversion to Christianity has not been ascertained, but it is known that, after studying theology and philology at the...
BENARY, KARL ALBERT AGATHON – German philologist; born at Cassel 1807; died 1860; brother of Franz Ferdinand Benary. He received his education at the gymnasia of Göttingen and Erfurt, studied classical philology (1824-27) at the universities of Göttingen and...
BENDAVID, LAZARUS – German philosopher and reformer; born in Berlin Oct. 18, 1762; died there March 28, 1832. In his younger days he supported himself by polishing glasses, and in his leisure time studied mathematics, in which he attained great...
BENDEMANN, EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH – German painter; born Dec. 3, 1811, in Berlin; died Dec. 27, 1889, at Düsseldorf. His father was a prominent banker of Berlin and associated with the intellectual circles of the capital. His talented son was therefore at an early...
BENDEMANN, RUDOLF CHRISTIAN EUGEN – German painter; born at Dresden Nov. 11, 1851; died May, 1884, at Pegli, near Genoa, Italy; educated at the Düsseldorf Academy under the supervision of his father, Eduard Bendemann. From 1877 to 1879 he lived at Munich, and...
BENDER, JOHANN HEINRICH – German jurist; born at Frankfort May or Sept. 29, 1797; died there Sept. 6, 1859. He studied law at Giessen, where he was also lecturer from 1819 to 1823. In 1831 he went to Frankfort to practise law, and five years later he was...
BENDIX, FRITS EMIL – Danish violoncellist and composer; born Jan. 12, 1847, at Copenhagen. He first studied with F. Rauch, and later with Friedrich Neruda and Friedrich Grützmacher in Dresden. From 1866 to 1871 he lived in Germany, where he...
BENDIX, OTTO JULIUS EMANUEL – Danish oboist and pianist; born July 26, 1845, at Copenhagen; a brother of Frits Bendix. He first devoted himself to the study of the oboe, and received instruction on that instrument from Christian Schliemann. He was also a...
BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL – Danish violin virtuoso, pianist, and composer; born May 17, 1851, at Copenhagen; brother of Frits Bendix. He early manifested a remarkable talent for music. From 1867 to 1869 he was a pupil at the newly founded conservatory of...