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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
JOHANAN HA-SANDALAR – Tanna of the second century; one of Akiba's disciples that survived the Hadrianic persecutions and transmitted the traditional law (Gen. R. lxi. 3; Eccl. R. xi, 6; comp. Yeb. 62b). With several colleagues he repaired to the...
JOHANAN B. TORTA – Scholar of the first and second centuries; contemporary of Akiba. When Akiba hailed Bar Kokba as the Messiah, the latter exclaimed, "Akiba, grass will have grown out of thy jaws ere the Son of David appears" (Yer. Ta'an. viii....
JOHANAN B. ZAKKAI – The most important tanna in the last decade of the Second Temple, and, after the destruction of Jerusalem, the founder and first president of the academy at Jabneh. According to the theory formulated in the Mishnah (Ab. ii. 8),...
JONAH – Biblical Data: Prophet in the days of Jeroboam II.; son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He is a historical personage; for, according to II Kings xiv. 25, he predicted in Yhwh's name the extent to which Jeroboam II. would restore the...
JONAH – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; leading rabbinical authority in the fourth amoraic generation. With Jose II., his early schoolmate and lifelong colleague and business partner, he studied under Ze'era I. and Ela (Bek....
JONAH BEN JUDAH GERSHON – Rabbi and author; died in Wilna 1808. He was dayyan of that city, and devoted his time to the study of the Tosefta, which he considered indispensable to a better understanding of the Mishnah and Gemara. But, finding the text...
JONATHAN, JEHONATHAN – 1. Son or descendant of Gershom, son of Moses. He officiated as a priest to the idol of Micah—a service continued in his family till the Israelites were driven from their country (Judges xviii. 30). In the passage in which...
JONATHAN (NATHAN) – Tanna of the second century; schoolfellow of Josiah, apart from whom he is rarely quoted. Jonathan is generally so cited without further designation; but there is ample reason for identifying him with the less frequently...
JONATHAN B. 'AKMAI – Palestinian amora of the third generation. According to Yer. Ter. xi. he was one of the teachers of Abbahu. It is probable that he was a descendant of the 'Akmai family of Jerusalem, in which there were many high priests (Yeb....
JONATHAN (NATHAN) B. AMRAM – Semi-tanna of the second and third centuries; disciple of Judah I. and senior of Jannai, who consulted him concerning ritual questions (Ḥag. 20a; 'Ab. Zarah 26b). Reluctance to make the possession of learning a means of material...
JONATHAN (NATHAN) OF BET GUBRIN – Palestinian scholar of the third century; junior of Joshua b. Levi and senior of Simon b. Pazzi (Cant. R. i. 1). He confined his labors to the Haggadah, and contributed to the Midrash several homilies, some of which, however,...
JONATHAN BEN ELEAZAR – Palestinian scholar of the third century; contemporary of Ḥanina b. Ḥama (Shab. 49a et seq.); disciple of Simon b. Jose b. Laḳonya. Rabbah b. Ḥana twice reports communications which he had with Jonathan in which the latter...
JORDAN, THE – Principal river of Palestine, formed by the confluence of three streams rising respectively at (1) Baniyas (Paneas), (2) Tell al-Ḳaḍi (Dan), and (3) Ḥaṣbeyah (Baal Gad) at the foot of Mt. Hermon. The Jordan flows south through...
JOSE (Joseph), ABBA, BEN DOSITAI (Dosai; Derosai; Dosa) – Palestinian tanna of the second century; mentioned as both halakist and haggadist. He transmitted a halakah of R. Jose the Galilean (Tosef., Ta'an. ii. 6). His haggadot consist chiefly of reconciliations between contradictory...
JOSE, ABBA, BEN ḤANIN – Palestinian tanna of the last decades before the destruction of the Temple; contemporary of Eliezer B. Jacob and of Ḥanina b. Antigonus, with both of whom he is mentioned in a halakic discussion (Tosef., Suk. iv. 15). His name...
JOSE B. ABIN – Palestinian amora of the fifth generation (4th cent.); son of R. Abin I. (Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." iii. 724) and the teacher of R. Abin II. (Yer. Ned. 3b). He was at first the pupil of R. Jose of Yodḳart, but the latter's...
JOSE (ISI, ISSI) BEN AḲABYA (AKIBA) – Tanna of the beginning of the third century. The name "Issi" or "Assa" is derived from "Jose," and was borne by many tannaim and amoraim; hence the confusion that prevails in the Talmud concerning the identity of each of them,...
JOSE BEN ḤALAFTA – Palestinian tanna of the fourth generation (2d cent.). Of his life only the following few details are known: He was born at Sepphoris; but his family was of Babylonian origin (Yoma 66b). According to a genealogical chart found...
JOSE B. JACOB B. IDI – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation (4th cent.). He was the colleague of R. Judan of Magdala (Yer. Ta'an. i. 3), and one of the expounders of the haggadot of R. Aha the Lydian. He has also some original sayings, in one of...
JOSE BEN JOEZER OF ZEREDAH – Rabbi of the early Maccabean period; possibly a disciple of Antigonus of Soko, though this is not certain. He belonged to a priestly family. With him and Jose ben Johanan of Jerusalem, his colleague, begins the period known in...
JOSE (JOSEPH) BEN JOHANAN – President of the Sanhedrin in the second century B.C.; a native of Jerusalem. He and Jose b. Joezer were the successors and, it is said, the disciples of Antigonus of Soko (Ab. i. 4-5), and the two together formed the first of a...
JOSE B. JUDAH – Tanna of the end of the second century. He is principally known through his controversies with R. Judah I. As specimens of his exegeses, the following may be given here. On the expression (Lev. xix. 36) he comments, "Let thy yea...
JOSE B. ḲAẒRATA (Ḳuẓira; Ḳaẓra) – Palestinian amora of the first amoraic generation; son-in-law of R. Jose. Kohut is of the opinion that the surname is derived from "Ḳaẓẓara" (washer); but in Tan., Wayeḥi, the name "Ḳaẓra" is found. Two other amoraim with this...
JOSE HA-KOHEN ("the Pious") – Tanna of the second generation; flourished in the first and second centuries; pupil of Johanan ben Zakkai. It is said of him that he never allowed any writing of his to remain in the hands of a heathen, lest he should carry it...
JOSE OF MALLAḤAYA – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation. According to his explanation of Ps. lvii. 5 the disasters that overtook the Jews were caused by their inclination to slander, common among them even in the time of David (Lev. R....