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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
EDEN, GARDEN OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin. The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (=...
'EDUYOT – Jewish School at Jerusalem, Showing Pupils Reading from Inverted Text.(From a photograph in the possession of Nissim Behar.)The seventh treatise in the order Neziḳin of the Mishnah. When, after the destruction of the Temple, it...
'EFA – Rabbinic scholar of the fourth century. He was a native of Babylonia, who, although but few halakot and fewer haggadot are associated with his name, acquired considerable fame as belonging to "the ingenious scholars of...
EFES – Scholar of the third century; secretary to the patriarch Judah I. (Gen. R. lxxv. 5), and one of the last tannaim. After Judah's death, while Efes conducted a college in southern Judea, on account of which he was called "Efes (in...
EFRATI, AMRAM BEN NATHAN – Rabbi of Valencia in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was a contemporary of Nissim b. Reuben, rabbi of Barcelona, and of Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ (RaSH-BaẒ), whom he consulted on rabbinical questions. He occupied the...
EGGS – Biblical Data: The Old Testament refers to eggs of birds (Deut. xxii. 6) and of vipers (Isa. lix. 5, A. V., "cockatrice"), and to the well-known fact that the ostrich leaves the egg in the warm sand and allows it to come to...
EJECTMENT – An action to recover the immediate possession of real property, with damages for wrongful withholding.The general principle governing all cases of possession of real estate in Jewish law was ("Real property is presumed to belong...
EKAH (LAMENTATIONS) RABBATI – The Midrash on Lamentations, like Bereshit Rabbah and the Pesiḳta ascribed to Rab Kahana, belongs to the oldest works of the Midrashic literature. It begins with thirty-six consecutive proems forming a separate collection,...
ELA (HELA, ILAA, ILAI, ILI, LA, LEIA, YELA) – Builder of the Law." Palestinian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third and fourth centuries). In one form or another, his name frequently appears in both Yerushalmi and Babli, mostly in the field of the Halakah. He was...
EL'ASAH – Amora, whose epoch is uncertain; known chiefly on account of a controversy which he had with a certain Philippus (or a philosopher). The latter remarked: "Does not the prophet say concerning Edom (Mal. i. 4), 'They shall build,...
ELDER – In primitive times age was a necessary condition of authority. Not only among the ancient Jews, but also among other nations of antiquity, the elders of the nation or of the clan constituted the official class. The institution...
ELDER, REBELLIOUS – An elder who defies the authoritative rabbinic interpretation of the Mosaic Law. In the period when the Sanhedrin flourished this was a capital offense, punishable by strangulation (Sanh. xi. 1). This is based on Deut. xvii....
ELEAZAR I. (LAZAR) (Eleazar b. Shammua') – Mishnaic teacher of the fourth generation, frequently cited in rabbinic writings without his patronymic (Ab. iv. 12; Giṭ. iii. 8, incorrectly "Eliezer"; compare Gem. Giṭ. 31b; Yer. Giṭ. iii. 45a, Mishnah and Gem.). He was of...
ELEAZAR II. (LAZAR) – Palestinian amora of the third century (second and third generations). In the Midrashim he is frequently cited with his patronymic, Eleazar b. Pedat, but in the Talmudim only occasionally so. He was a Babylonian by birth (Yer....
ELEAZAR B. ABINA – Palestinian haggadist of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century C. E.); junior contemporary of Aḥa III., in whose name he repeats some homiletic remarks (Pesiḳ. R. xiv. 60b, xxi. 109b), and senior of R. Yudan, who reports...
ELEAZAR BEN AHWAI (AHBAI) – Probably identical, according to Bacher ("Ag. Tan." ii. 553), with Eleazar b. Mahbai or Maḥbai, a tanna of the second century, contemporary of Judah b. Bathyra and Aḥa I. (Tosef., Yeb. xiv. 4). He is cited but twice under this...
ELEAZAR BEN 'ARAK – Tanna of the second generation (first century C.E.). Being first among the disciples of R. Johanan ben Zakkai (Ab. ii. 8; Ab. R. N. xiv. 3), he delighted his master with his wisdom and penetration, so that the most extravagant...
ELEAZAR B. AZARIAH – Mishnaic scholar of the second generation (first century C.E.); junior contemporary of Gamaliel II., Eliezer b. Hyrcanus, and Joshua b. Hananiah, and senior of Akiba (Sifre, Deut. 32; Sanh. 101a). He traced his pedigree for ten...
ELEAZAR B. DURDAIA – A famous penitent, quoted both as a warning against debauchery, which leads to death, and as an encouragement to repentance, which leads to eternal happiness. It is related of him that, after leading a life of licentiousness, he...
ELEAZAR (ELIEZER) B. ENOCH – A scholarly contemporary of 'Aḳabia b. Mahalalel and Gamaliel II. According to the statement of Judahb. 'Illai, it was this Eleazar, and not 'Aḳabia, who was excommunicated by the Sanhedrin for the reason that he quibbled about...
ELEAZAR OF HAGRONIA – Babylonian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fifth century); junior of Aḥa b. Jacob and Raba (b. Joseph). He is mentioned twice in the Babylonian Talmud, and both times in connection with extraordinary circumstances....
ELEAZAR (ELIEZER) B. HISMA – Tanna of the second and third generations (second century); disciple of Joshua b. Hananiah and Gamaliel II. (Ḥag. 3a; Hor. 10a). In their use of the word "ben" in connection with his cognomen "Ḥisma" or "Ḥasma" (see Geiger,...
ELEAZAR (LAZAR) BEN JOSE I. – Tanna of the fourth and fifth generations (second century). He was second among the five learned sons of Jose b. Ḥalafta (Shab. 118b; Yer. Yeb. i. 2b); and the father repeatedly reports opinions which he had heard from Eleazar...
ELEAZAR (LAZAR) B. JOSE II. – Palestinian amora of the fifth generation (fifth century); senior of Naḥman II. and Aḥa III. (Pesiḳ. v. 55a). Most of his utterances are remarks which he had directly or indirectly heard from Abbahu, Ḥanina b. Abbahu, Tanḥum b....
ELEAZAR (ELIEZER, LAZAR) B. JUDAH OF BARTOTA (BIRIA, BIRTA, BIRTOTA) – Scholar and philanthropist of the third tannaitic generation (first and second centuries); disciple of Joshua b. Hananiah, and contemporary of Akiba (Ṭ. Y. iii. 4, 5; Tosef., Bek. vii. 6). Sometimes the cognomen is omitted...