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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
LANDAU – A family name said to have been derived from the name of a city situated in western Germany.The name is found largely among Polish Jews, who probably were expelled from that city about the middle of the sixteenth century (see...
LANDAU – A family name said to have been derived from the name of a city situated in western Germany.The name is found largely among Polish Jews, who probably were expelled from that city about the middle of the sixteenth century (see...
LANDSOFER (LANDSCHREIBER), JONAH BEN ELIJAH – Bohemian Talmudist; born in 1678; died at Prague Oct. 9, 1712. Landsofer made a special study of the Masorah and was well versed in the regulations concerning the writing of scrolls of the Law, whence his name "Landsofer." He...
LATTES (LATTAS) – Family that includes many scholars among its members. The name frequently occurs with the prefix "De" ( , ), and seems to have originated in Lattes, a little town near Béziers, France (Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No....
LAW, CODIFICATION OF – Definition. A unified and coordinated body of law superseding all previous laws within its scope, or the reenactment of existing law in a systematic and improved form. There are few Jewish codes under the first head, but many...
LEAVEN – Fermenting dough ( = "to be sour," "fermented"; Aramaic, ). Leavened bread was probably a common article of food among the ancient Israelites (Hos. vii. 4), while unleavened bread ("maẓẓot") was prepared when food was required...
LENTILS – Edible seeds first mentioned in the Old Testament in Gen. xxv. 29-34, where it is related that Jacob gave Esau "bread and pottage of lentils" for his birth-right. Lentils were also among the provisions brought by Barzillai to...
LEVI II. – Views About Jonah. Palestinian scholar of the third century (third amoraic generation); contemporary of Ze'era I. and Abba b. Kahana (Yer. Ma'as. iii. 51a). In a few instances he is quoted as Levi b. Laḥma (Ḥama; comp. Yer. R....
LEVI, ABRAHAM – German traveler; born at Horn, in the principality of Lippe, in 1702; died at Amsterdam Feb. 1, 1785. At the age of five he was sent to Brog, near Lemgo, for the sake of his studies, and he stayed there till 1714, when he...
LEVI BEN LAḤMA – Palestinian haggadist of the third century. He seems to have been a pupil of Simeon ben Laḳish, whose haggadot he transmitted (Ber. 5a); but he transmitted some haggadot of Ḥama b. Ḥanina also (R. H. 29b; Zeb. 53b). Ta'an. 16a...
LEVI B. SISI (SISYI; SUSYI) – Palestinian scholar; disciple of the patriarch Judah I. and school associate of his son Simeon ('Ab. Zarah 19a); one of the semi-tannaim of the last decades of the second century and of the early decades of the third. He...
LEVI BEN SOLOMON – Galician Talmudist; lived at Brody in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Bet Lewi," halakic novellæ and explanations of the difficult passages in Rashi and Tosafot (Zolkiev, 1732).Bibliography:...
LEVIATHAN AND BEHEMOTH – Names of gigantic beasts or monsters described in Job xl. The former is from a root denoting "coil," "twist"; the latter is the plural form of "behemah"="beast."—Biblical Data: Ever since Bochart ("Hierozoicon," iii. 705),...
LEVIN, HIRSCHEL BEN ARYEH LÖB – German rabbi; born at Rzeszow, Galicia, in 1721; died at Berlin Aug. 26, 1800. His father (known also as Saul Levin) was rabbi at Amsterdam; and on his mother's side Hirschel was a nephew of JacobEmden. Although he occupied...
LEVIN, JOSHUA HöSCHEL BEN ELIJAH ZEEB – Lithuanian Talmudist and author; born at Wilna July 22, 1818; died at Paris Nov. 15, 1883. After studying Talmud and rabbinics under Elijah Kalischer, Levin settled in Volozhin, where he lectured on Talmud and wrote several...
LEVIRATE MARRIAGE – Marriage with a brother's widow. This custom is found among a large number of primitive peoples, a list of which is given by Westermarck ("History of Human Marriage," pp. 510-514). In some cases it is the duty of a man to marry...
LEVY, JUDAH – Tunisian rabbinical author; lived at Tunis and died there in the middle of the nineteenth century; son of Nathan Levy. He was originally from Gibraltar. He published under his own name only one Hebrew work, "Maḥane Lewiyyah."...
LÉVY-BACRAT, ABRAHAM – Rabbinical author of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Expelled from Spain in 1492, he settled at Tunis, where in 1507 he wrote "Sefer ha-Zikkaron," a supercommentary on Rashi. The manuscript remained unprinted till 1845,...
LICHTENSTADT (LASH) – Bohemian Talmudist; lived at Prague in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Shesh ha-Ma'arakah," a commentary on the six Mishnaic orders, each order having a separate title as follows: (1) "Derek...
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM B. ELIEZER LIPMAN – Polish rabbi and author; lived at the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth century; grandson of R. Kalman of Byelostok. He was rabbi and preacher at Prassnysz, in the government of Plotzk,...
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL SALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH – Rabbi of Plonsk, government of Warsaw, in the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Zera' Abraham" (Dyhernfurth, 1811), a commentary on the Sifre, followed by Biblical and Talmudical indexes, and accompanied...
LILITH – Female demon. Of the three Assyrian demons Lilu, Lilit, and Ardat Lilit, the second is referred to in Isa. xxxiv. 14. Schrader ("Jahrb. für Protestantische Theologie," i. 128)takes Lilith to be a goddess of the night; she is...
LION – Biblical Data: There are several names for the lion in the Old Testament (comp. Job iv. 10 et seq.): "aryeh," or "ari," which is the most general name; "labi'" and "lebiyah," for the old lion and lioness; "kefir" and "gur," for...
LIPSCHÜTZ (LÜPSCHÜTZ, LIPSCHITZ, LIBSCHITZ) – Name of a family of Polish and German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name of a town in Bohemia.Aryeh Löb Lipschütz: Austrian rabbi and author; lived in the second half of the eighteenth and in the first half of the...
LIPSCHÜTZ (LÜPSCHÜTZ, LIPSCHITZ, LIBSCHITZ) – Name of a family of Polish and German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name of a town in Bohemia.Aryeh Löb Lipschütz: Austrian rabbi and author; lived in the second half of the eighteenth and in the first half of the...