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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
METURGEMAN – With the return of the exiles from captivity the religious instruction of the people was put into the hands of the Levites (Neh. viii. 7-9; II Chron. xvii. 8, 9; xxxv. 3). These functionaries were called ("teachers"). In all...
MICAH – 1. Prophet; author of the sixth book in the collection known as "The Twelve Minor Prophets" (Mic. i. 1). The name of the prophet appears to be a shortened form of , "Micaiah" (= "Who is like Yhwh?"), and is so written in Jer....
MIDDOT – Treatise in the Mishnah; tenth in the order Ḳodashim. It deals with the dimensions and the arrangement of the Temple, and is divided into five chapters containing thirty-four paragraphs in all.Ch. i.: The night-watches in the...
MIDWIFE – Biblical Data: Midwives are referred to in the Bible as having been employed among the Hebrews at an early period; thus Rachel and Tamar were assisted by midwives (Gen. xxxv. 17, xxxviii. 28). They were called in, however, only...
MIZRAḤI – Family living in the Orient, to which belong some well-known rabbinical authors. There are two main branches: one in Constantinople, and the other in Jerusalem. The name "Mizraḥi" signifies "an Oriental," and is used as a...
MO'ED ḲAṬAN – Treatise in the Mishnah, in the Tosefta, and in the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It deals principally with the regulations concerning the semi-feasts, or intermediary festivals, which are termed "mo'ed" and are the days...
MORDECAI B. HILLEL B. HILLEL – German halakist of the thirteenth century; died as a martyr at Nuremberg Aug. 1, 1298. Mordecai belonged to one of the most prominent families of scholars in Germany, his grandfather Hillel being on the mother's side a grandson...
MORDECAI B. ISAAC OF CARPENTRAS – French Talmudist; flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Mordecai lived in Carpentras (department of Vaucluse) at the time of the religious struggles (1303-6), and corresponded with Abba Mari of Lunel, who speaks...
MORDECAI BEN JOSEPH OF AVIGNON – Provençal Talmudist; flourished in the middle of the thirteenth century; a contemporary of the Dominican Pablo Christiani, a former pupil of Eliezer of Tarascon. Mordecai, as the most prominent Jew in Provence, suffered the most...
MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE – Tosafist; lived in the twelfth century. He was a disciple of Jacob Tam, with whom he carried on an active scientific correspondence, and was one of the members of the assembly presided over by him. Moses was the author of a...
MOSES BEN ENOCH – Founder of Talmud study in Spain; died about 965. He was one of the four scholars that went from Sura, the seat of a once flourishing but then declining Talmud academy, in order to collect contributions for that school. During a...
MOSES BEN JOSEPH BEN MERWAN HA-LEVI – French Talmudist; flourished about the middle of the twelfth century. He was a nephew and pupil of Isaac ben Merwan ha-Levi, and a prominent Talmudist and rabbi; his colleagues addressed him as "Great scholar, Nasi R. Moses,"...
MOSES KALFO – Italian scholar; lived at the beginning of the eleventh century at Bari, where he taught at the yeshibah. He is known through lexicographical explanations cited by Nathan ben Jehiel, author of the "'Aruk" (s.v. , , and ). Nathan...
MOSES HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL – French Talmudist; flourished about 1200. Moses was one of the rabbis who criticized Maimonides' writings. He wrote a series of strictures on the "Mishneh Torah," which are preserved in the Bodleian Library (MS. No. 617). Simon...
MOUSE – An animal enumerated among the unclean "creeping things" in Lev. xi. 29. In I Sam. vi., where the reference is to the mice sent as a plague upon the Philistines to ravage their fields, "'akbar" may denote specifically the...
MULE – A hybrid between the ass and horse. The Hebrew term is "pered"; feminine, "pirdah." (For "rekesh," which some render by "mule," see Horse.) "Yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), which Targ. Yer., Arabic version, and Greek Venetus translate...
NAJARA (NAJAR, NIJAR, NAGAR, NAGARA) – Oriental Jewish family, originally from Najera, a Spanish city of Navarre, on the River Najerilla. In the history of rabbinical literature Najaras are found at Algiers, Tunis, Damascus, Gaza, etc.David Najar: Rabbinical writer...
NAPHTALI BEN DAVID – Hebrew author; born at Witzenhausen, Germany; lived in Amsterdam at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He belonged to the family of R. Moses Isserles. Naphtali was a distinguished Talmudical scholar and enjoyed great fame...
NATAF, ISAAC B. SOLOMON – Rabbi at Tunis, Africa, at the end of the eighteenth and in the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "U-Shebu'ato le-Yiẓḥaḳ" (Leghorn, 1820), a work on twenty different sorts of oaths and their obligations...
PLEDGES – The law against taking pledges for debt is drawn from the following passages: "No man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge: for he taketh a man's life to pledge" (Deut. xxiv. 6, R. V.), "nor [shall he] take the...
PROPHET, FALSE – Classes of False Prophets. Deuteronomy is the only book containing laws concerning the false prophet (xiii. 2-6 [A. V. 1-5], xviii. 20-22). He is designated there as "prophet, or a dreamer of dreams," and it is in accordance...
TE'OMIM-FRÄNKEL, BARUCH BEN DAVID – Rabbi at Wisnicz, Austrian Galicia, and at Leipnik, Moravia, during the first half of the nineteenth century; grandson of Aryeh Löb ben Joshua Feiwel Te'omim. He was famous as a Talmudist, and was the author of "Baruk Ṭa'am"...