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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ELEAZAR (ELIEZER) HA-ḲAPPAR – Tanna of the fourth generation (second century); father of Bar Ḳappara, who is sometimes cited by the same name. Eleazar is quoted in the Mishnah (Ab. iv. 21), where he says, "Envy, lust, and ambition shorten man's life." From...
ELEAZAR B. MALAI – Palestinian scholar of the fourth century, whose name is mentioned but once, in the Babylonian Talmud, and then only as the reporter of a homily of Simeon b. Laḳish, which reproves the wickedness of the courts with the following...
ELEAZAR B. MATTAI (MATTHIAS) – Tanna of the third and fourth generations (second century); contemporary of Hananiah b. Ḥakinai, Ben 'Azzai, and Simon of Teman (Tosef., Ber. iv. 18). It is stated that, together with Ḥalafta and Hananiah, he examined the stones...
ELEAZAR B. MENAHEM – Palestinian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation (fourth century). No halakot and but few haggadot are connected with his name. Commenting on the Biblical expression (Ps. xxxvi. 9 [A. V. 8]). "Thou shalt make them drink of...
ELEAZAR OF MODI'IM (MODAIM) – Scholar of the second tannaitic generation (first and second centuries); disciple of Johanan ben Zakkai (B. B. 10b), and contemporary of Joshua ben Hananiah and Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (Mek., Beshallah, Wayassa', 3 et seq.). He was...
ELEAZAR BEN PERATA I. – Tanna of the third generation (second century); junior contemporary of Eleazar of Modi'im (Tosef., Sanh. iv. 8; Yer. Meg. i. 71c) and of Jose the Galilean (Mek., Yitro, Baḥodesh, 2). He lived through the period when, according...
ELEAZAR BEN PERATA II. – Tanna of the second and third centuries; grandson of Eleazar ben Perata I.; sometimes designated as "Eleazar b. Perata, the grandson of Eleazar b. Perata ha-Gadol" (Ket. 100a; Giṭ. 33a; Yer. Meg. iv. 75b), and also without the...
ELEAZAR BEN SIMON – Tanna of the second century. He was the son of Simon b. Yoḥai, and since he participated in many of his father's adventures, history and legend have woven an almost interminable tissue of fact and fiction concerning him (see B....
ELIAKIM – A Palestinian scholar of the third century. His name is connected with no halakot, and with a single haggadah only. He construes the Psalmist's saying (Ps. i. 6), "The Lord knoweth the way of the righteous; but the way of the...
ELIEZER – 1. Servant of Abraham; mentioned by name only in Gen. xv. 2, a passage which presents some difficulties. Eliezer is described by Abraham as (R. V. "possessor of my house") and as (R. V. "Dammesek-Eliezer"). According to Eduard...
ELIEZER – Palestinian amora of the fifth century; contemporary of Abdimi (Yer. 'Er. x. 26a) and of Berechiah II. (Gen. R. lxxvii. 3; Yalḳ., Gen. 132). Conjointly with Abba Mari and Mattaniah, he permitted Jews to bake bread on the Sabbath...
ELIEZER (LIEZER) BEN HYRCANUS – One of the most prominent tannaim of the first and second centuries; disciple of R. Johanan ben Zakkai (Ab. ii. 8; Ab. R. N. vi. 3, xiv. 5) and colleague of Gamaliel II., whose sister he married (see Imma Shalom), and of Joshua...
ELIEZER (LIEZER-ELEAZAR) B. JACOB – 1. Tanna of the first century; contemporary of Eleazar b. Ḥisma and Eliezer b. Hyrcanus, and senior of 'Illai (Pes. 32a, 39b; Yalḳ., Lev. 638). Of his personal history nothing is known, except that he had seen the Temple at...
ELIEZER B. JOSE HA-GELILI – Tanna of the fourth generation (second century); one of Akiba's later disciples (Ber. 63b; Cant. R. ii. 5; Eccl. R. xi. 6; see Eliezer b. Jacob). While he cultivated both the Halakah (Soṭah v. 3; Tosef., Sanh. i. 2; Sanh. 3b)...
ELIEZER B. TADDAI – Tanna of the second century; contemporary of Simon b. Eleazar (Tosef., 'Er. vii. [v.] 9); and quoted in some baraitot in connection with halakot and with haggadot (Tosef., Shab. xvi. [xvii.] 10; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Shirah, i.;...
ELIEZER (ELEAZAR) B. ZADOK – 1. Tanna of the first century; disciple of Johanan the Horonite (Tosef., Suk. ii. 3; Yeb. 15b). He traced his descent from Shinhab or Senaah of the tribe of Benjamin ('Er. 41a; Ta'an. 12a). In his youth he saw the Temple in its...
ELIJAH – Biblical Data: The name means "Yhwh is (my) God," and is a confession that its bearer defended Yhwh against the worshipers of Baal and of other gods. It has therefore been assumed that the prophet took this name himself...
ELIJAH'S CHAIR – At every circumcision Elijah, "the angel of the covenant," as he is called in Malachi (iii. 1), is supposed to be seated at the right hand of the sandek, upon a chair richly carved and ornamented with embroideries ("kisse shel...
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON – Lithuanian Talmudist, cabalist, grammarian, and mathematician; born at Wilna April 23, 1720; died there Oct. 9, 1797. He gave evidence of the possession of extraordinary talents while still a child. At the age of seven he was...
ELISHA – Biblical Data: Successor to the prophet Elijah. The name (in the LXX. Ελισά, Ελισαιέ; in Luke iv. 27 Ελισ[σ]αῖος) seems to denote "God is salvation," corresponding to the Sabean , and thus be in meaning identical with "Elishua"...
EMBEZZLEMENT – The fraudulent conversion to one's own use of goods or money entrusted to one's care and control. The offense differs from theft in that in the latter the possession itself is unlawful.The Mosaic law provides a penalty for...
EMBRYO – The young of a mammal while still connected with the body of its mother. The child "en ventre sa mere" of English law was a subject of dispute between the ancient and the new Halakah, the former considering it a separate living...
EMDEN, JACOB ISRAEL BEN ẒEBI ASHKENAZI – German Talmudist and anti-Shabbethaian; born at Altona June 4, 1697; died there April 19, 1776. Until seventeen Emden studied Talmud under his father, known as "Ḥakam Ẓebi," first at Altona, then (1710-14) at Amsterdam. In 1715...
'ENA, RAB – Babylonian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third century); contemporary of Rab Judah b. Ezekiel. The two were known as "sabe de Pumbedita" (elders of Pumbedita, Sanh. 17b; 'Er. 79b et seq.).'Ena once pronounced at the...
ENOCH – 1. Son of Cain (Gen. iv. 17). A city was named after him.2. Biblical Data: Name of the seventh progenitor of the race in the "book of the generations of Adam"; he was the son of Jared and the father of Methuselah (Gen. v.). He...