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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
GALILEE – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: In the Greek period the customary name for the northern division of western Palestine. The name is formed from "ha-Galil," in the Old Testament (Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32, LXX.; I Kings ix. 11; II...
GAMALIEL – Name which occurs in the Bible only as a designation of the prince of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. i. 10; ii. 20; vii. 54, 59; x. 23). In post-Biblical times the name occurs with special frequency in the family of Hillel. In a...
GAMALIEL I. – His Correspondence. Son of Simon and grandson of Hillel: according to a tannaitic tradition (Shab.15a), he was their successor as nasi and first president of the Great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem. Although the reliability of this...
GAMALIEL II – Appointed "Nasi." The recognized head of the Jews in Palestine during the last two decades of the first and at the beginning of the second century. He continued with great energy and success the work of restoration begun by...
GAMALIEL III. – Son of Judah I., who before his death appointed him his successor as nasi (Ket. 103a). Scarcely anything has been handed down concerning his deeds or concerning the whole period of his activity (within the first third of the...
GAMALIEL IV. – Son and successor of the patriarch Judah II., and father of the patriarch Judah III. The period of activity of these patriarchs can not be determined. Grätz puts Gamaliel IV. in the last third of the third century. According to...
GAMALIEL V. – Son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.; celebrated in connection with the perfecting of the Jewish calendar in 359. From geonic sources ("Seder Tanna'im we-Amora'im") only his name and those of his two successors are...
GAMALIEL VI. – The last patriarch. The decree of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II. (Oct. 17, 415) contains interesting data concerning him. By this decree the patriarch was deprived of all the higher honors which had been given him, as...
GAMBLING – Playing at games, especially games of chance, for money. Among the ancient Israelites no mention is made of games of chance, and no provision was made against them until the period of the Mishnah. With the introduction of...
GARNISHMENT – In law, the process by which A collects his demand from his debtor, B, by attaching money owing to B from a third person; hence called "Dritt-Arrest" in German law. The power of a court to enforce a judgment against B by...
GEBIHA OF ARGIZAH – Babylonian scholar of the fifth century; contemporary of Ashi, the projector of the Babylonian Gemara compilation. Huna b. Nathan once reported to Ashi a homiletic interpretation by Gebiha (Giṭ. 7a; Yalḳ. to Josh. xv. 22, § 17)....
GEBIHA OF BE-KATIL – Babylonian halakist of the fifth century; junior of Aḥa b. Jacob, Abaye, and Raba; from all of these he learned halakot, which he eventually reported to Ashi, whom he assisted in the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud (Yeb....
GEBINI – Officer of the Second Temple, whose duty was at certain times of each day to announce the rite to be performed, and to remind the appointees of their respective parts in the performance of that rite. Thus he would cry out:...
GEBINI B. ḤARSON – A Jewish Crœsus, cited as a realistic illustration of Eccl. iv. 8. The Midrash thus dissects the verse: "There is one alone": that means Gebini b. Ḥarson, to whom"there was no second," he being without an equal. "He hath neither...
GEMAṬRIA – A cryptograph which gives, instead of the intended word, its numerical value, or a cipher produced by the permutation of letters. The term first occurs in literature in the twenty-ninth of the thirty-two hermeneutic rules of R....
GENIZAH – The storeroom or depository in a synagogue; a cemetery in which worn-out and heretical or disgraced Hebrew books or papers are placed. A genizah serves therefore the twofold purpose of preserving good things from harm and bad...
GERONDI, ISAAC B. ZERAHIAH HALEVI – Talmudist; lived in Gerona in the twelfth century. He was the father of Zerahiah ha-Levi, author of "Sefer ha-Ma'or," and of Berachiah ha-Levi, author of some piyyuṭim; among the latter are to be found compositions for Sabbath...
GERONDI, JONAH B. ABRAHAM (HEḤASID), THE ELDER – Spanish rabbi and moralist of the thirteenth century; died in Toledo, Spain, Nov., 1263; a cousin of Naḥmanides. He came from Gerona, in Catalonia. Gerondi was the most prominent pupil of Solomon of Montpellier, the leader of...
GERSHOM BEN JUDAH – French rabbi; born at Metz in 960; died at Mayence in 1040. He was the founder of Talmudic studies in France and Germany. As he himself says in a responsum reported by R. Meïr of Rothenburg, he owed most of his knowledge to his...
GESHEM – One of the Hebrew words for "rain," applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Palestine in the fall and winter. This half of the year is called in the Mishnah "yemot ha-geshamin" (days of rains). In the liturgy of the...
GEṬ – The earliest use of the geṭ, an institution peculiar to the Jews, can not be established with certainty. Although the suggestion of the Rabbis that it has existed among the Jews since the time of Abraham (Yalḳ. Shime'oni, i. 95)...
GE'ULLAH – The name of the benediction which follows the reading of the Shema'. It refers to God's redemption of Israel from Egyptian bondage, and closes with the words "who hath redeemed ["ga'al"] Israel." The forms for the evening and...
GEZERAH – Examples. A rabbinical enactment issued as a guard or preventive measure; also a prohibition or restriction generally; from the root "gazar" (to cut; to decide). The term is especially applied to a negative ordinance ("taḳḳanah"...
GIFTS – Biblical Data: The interchange of gifts was a custom common among the early Israelites in the ordinary transactions of life as well as at all family celebrations. The subordinate gave presents to his superior "to smooth his...
GIZA (GIZAI) – A sabora; head of the Babylonian school in the first half of the sixth century. In a very old source, the "Seder Tanna'im wa-Amora'im," he is mentioned, together with Simuna, as the last of the Saboraim (Neubaner, "Mediæval...