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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
GLEANING OF THE FIELDS – Biblical Data: The remains of a crop after harvesting, which must be left for the poor. The Mosaic law enjoins: "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou...
GOMEL BENSHEN – The pronouncing of the benediction for escape from danger' after passing through the desert; after confinement in prison; after severe sickness; and after crossing the sea and arriving safely in port. From the verses "Men should...
GOOSE – According to the Talmudists the domestic and the wild goose are two different species which should not be crossed (B. Ḳ. 55a; Bek. 8a). They are distinguished by the following criteria: The domestic goose has a longer beak than...
GORING OX – Two passages in Exodus treat of an ox doing harm: the first of harm to a person (xxi. 28-32); the second to the ox of another owner (ib. 35-36). The verb used in the first passage is "nagaḥ" (to gore); that in the second,...
GRACE AT MEALS – Benedictions before and after meals. In the prayer-book of the Spanish Jews grace after meals is called "bendicion de la mesa" (benediction of the table); the German Jews speak of "benschen," a corruption of the Latin...
GUARDIAN AND WARD – Appointment. Page from the First Edition of David Ḳimḥi's Commentary on the Prophets, Printed by Solomon ibn AlḲabiẓ at Guadalajara, 1482.The Biblical , or "nursing-father" (Isa. xlix. 23; Esth. ii. 7), is unknown to the...
ḤABER – Scholar" in General. Term ordinarily used in rabbinical lore in its original Biblical sense, "companion," "friend" (Ps. cxix. 63; Ab. ii. 9, 10). A Talmudic proverb says, "Thy ḥaber has a ḥaber, and thy ḥaber's ḥaber has a...
HAGAR – Biblical Data: Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, and mother of Ishmael. According to one narrative, Sarah, having no children, requested Abraham to take Hagar as concubine, so that she might adopt her children (comp. Gen. xxx. 3,...
HAGGADAH – Derived from the verb (ḳal ), "to report," "to explain," "to narrate." The verb sometimes introduces halakic explanations, but the noun is used only in contradistinction to "halakah," and means a tale, a narrative, an...
HAIR – Biblical Data: The hair of the ancient Hebrews was generally black (comp. Cant. iv. 1, v. 11). In Eccl. xi. 10 black hair is designated as a sign of youth in contrast with the white hair of age. Josephus narrates ("Ant." xvi. 8,...
ḤAKAM – Functions. A wise or skilful man. The word is generally used to designate a cultured and learned person: "He who says a wise thing is called a wise man ["ḥakam"], even if he be not a Jew" (Meg.16a). Hence in Talmudic-Midrashic...
ḤAMA – Babylonian scholar of the fourth amoraic generation; contemporary of Papa (Ket. 86a), and successor of Naḥman b. Isaac in the rectorate of the academy at Pumbedita (356-377; Grätz, "Gesch." 2d ed., iv. 366; comp. Sherira's...
HAMAN THE AGAGITE – Biblical Data: Son of Hammedatha; chief minister of King Ahasuerus (Esth.iii.1-2). As his name indicates, Haman was a descendant of Agag, the king of the Amalekites. On account of his attempt to exterminate the Jews in the...
HANANIAH (ḤANINA) – Tanna of the second century; contemporary of Judah b. Bathyra, Matteya b. Ḥeresh, and Jonathan (Sifre, Deut. 80). Who his father was is not stated; nor is anything known of his early years. He was named after his grandfather,...
HANANIAH (ḤANINA) B. TERADION – Teacher and martyr in the third tannaitic generation (second century); contemporary of Eleazar ben PeraṬa I. and of Ḥalafta, together with whom he established certain ritualistic rules (Ta'an. ii. 5). His residence was at...
HANNOVER, NATHAN (NATA) BEN MOSES – Russian historian, Talmudist, and cabalist; died, according to Zunz ("Kalender," 5623, p. 18), at Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, July 14, 1663. Jacob Aboab, however, in a letter to Unger (Wolf, Bibl. Hebr." iii., No. 1728), gives...
HATRA'AH – Caution or warning given to those who are about to commit a crime. The Rabbis consider the fact that not all men are lawyers (comp. "Yad Malaki," Din 24), and therefore many sin through ignorance or error. To prove guilty...
HATTARAT HORA'AH – A rabbinical diploma; a written certificate given to one who, after a thorough examination, proves himself competent and worthy to be a rabbi. It is a substitute for the "semikah," which could be conferred only in Palestine, by...
ḤAYYIM, ABIGDOR – Talmudist; lived in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Peri 'Eẓ Ḥayyim" (Amsterdam, 1742), containing responsa, annotations to Maimonides' "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah" and to the "Arba' Ṭurim," and sermons arranged in the order...
ḤAYYIM BEN ISAAC REIZES – Head of the yeshibah at Lemberg; born 1687; martyred May 13, 1728. Ḥayyim and his brother Joshua were thrown into prison on the eve of Passover, March 24, 1728, as the result of being falsely denounced by a Jewish convert, who...
ḤAYYIM BEN ISAAC OF VOLOZHIN (ḤAYYIM VOLOZHINER) – Russian rabbi and educator; born at Volozhin, government of Wilna, Jan. 21, 1749; died there June 14, 1821. Both he and his elder brother Simḥah (d. 1812) studied under R. Aryeh Löb Ginzberg, who was then rabbi of Volozhin,...
ḤAYYIM JACOB BEN JACOB DAVID – Rabbi of Smyrna; lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. According to Michael, he was born at Smyrna and was a pupil of Ḥayyim b. Jacob Abulafia, author of "'Eẓ Ḥayyim." He went to Safed, the rabbis of which town sent...
ḤAYYIM BEN JEHIEL ḤEFEẒ ZAHAB – Talmudist of the fourteenth century; died 1314. He was a brother of Asher ben Jehiel (Rosh). He was educated by his father, Jehiel, and by Samuel of Evreux. Some of his responsa, perhaps all, are included in the "She'elot...
ḤAYYIM B. MOSES 'AṬṬAR – Italian rabbi; born at Sale, near Brescia, Italy, 1696; died in Jerusalem 1743. He was educated under the care of his grandfather, R. Ḥayyim. He wrote: "Ḥefeẓ ha-Shem," novellæ on Berakot, Shabbat, Horayot, and part of Ḥullin...
ḤAYYIM B. SAMUEL B. DAVID OF TOLEDO – Spanish rabbi and author; lived at the end of the thirteenth century and at the beginning of the fourteenth. He was a pupil of Solomon b. Adret, and left in manuscript a work, "Ẓeror ha-Ḥayyim," which contains the laws...