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J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, Canada.

Contributions:
AMNON – 1. The eldest son of David and Ahinoam, the Jezreelitess (II Sam. iii. 2). As heir presumptive to the throne he was an object of envy and dislike to Absalom. The dishonor done by Amnon to his half-sister Tamar—the full sister of...
ANAMMELECH – A god worshiped by the Sepharvites in Samaria under the Assyrian régime, along with the god Adrammelech (II Kings, xvii. 31). Anu was the chief of the old Babylonian trinity, Anu, Bel, and Ea; and if Sepharvaim (compare ib. 24)...
ANIMAL WORSHIP – This is an expression which needs careful definition, since it is understood and explained in various ways. A distinction has to be made between a strict and a loose employment of the expression. On the one hand, a difference...
APHEK – The name of several places mentioned in the Old Testament, of which the most famous was the scene of a severe defeat of Ben-hadad II. of Damascus by Ahab, king of Israel (I Kings, xx. 29 et seq.). See Aphek, Battle of. The site...
APHEK, THE BATTLE OF – This event, described in I Kings, xx. 26-34, was one of the most notable in the prolonged warfare between northern Israel and the Arameans of Damascus. The Syrians, who, under Ben-hadad II., had been defeated by Israel the year...
ARAUNAH – A Jebusite whose threshing-floor in Jerusalem was pointed out to David by the prophet Gad as a fitting place for the erection of an altar of burnt offering to Jehovah after the great plague had been stayed, since it was there...
ARK OF NOAH – Biblical Data: The vessel occupied by Noah and his family during the Deluge (Gen. vi. 14, vii., viii.).The English name should not be confounded with the Ark of the Covenant. The Hebrew name, , is the same as that of the chest...
ARMY – Biblical Data: This term, here used to designate the defensive force of Israel at all stages of the nation's history, embraces widely dissimilar aggregations of men. The Hebrew vocabulary scarcely indicates these distinctions...
ARNON – Biblical Data: A river and wady of eastern Palestine, the modern Wady Mojib (or Wady el-Mojib). The name means perhaps "noisy," a term which well describes the latter part of the course of the river. Its length is about 45...
ASA – Biblical Data: Third king of Judah; son of Abijam and grandson of Rehoboam; reigned 917-876 B.C. (I Kings xv. 7-9). The most important event of his reign was the deliverance of Judah from Baasha, king of Israel, under whom the...
ASHER – Biblical Data: The eighth son of the patriarch Jacob, and the traditional progenitor of the tribe Asher. He is represented as the younger brother of Gad; these two being the sons of Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah (Gen. xxx. 10 et...
ASHER, Tribe and Territory – Situation. —Biblical Data: The fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: "Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall yield the dainties of a king" (Gen. xlix. 20, Hebr.). Until the settlement...
ASHER, Tribe and Territory – Situation. —Biblical Data: The fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: "Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall yield the dainties of a king" (Gen. xlix. 20, Hebr.). Until the settlement...
ASSYRIA – Name and Origin. The name "Assyria" is the Greek form of the native "Asshur," the city on the west of the Tigris, near its confluence with the Lower Zab, from which the kingdom, and finally the empire, of Assyria was named....
AZAZEL – The name of a supernatural being mentioned in connection with the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.). After Satan, for whom he was in some degree a preparation, Azazel enjoys the distinction of being the most mysterious...
AZAZEL – The name of a supernatural being mentioned in connection with the ritual of the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.). After Satan, for whom he was in some degree a preparation, Azazel enjoys the distinction of being the most mysterious...
BA'AL AND BA'AL-WORSHIP – Biblical Data: Altar of Ba'al at Petra, Idumæa.(After a photograph.)The wide-spread and primitive Semitic root ("ba'al") may be most nearly rendered in English by "possess." The term "Ba'al," therefore, which is usually...
BAAL-BERITH – Biblical Data ("the Ba'al of the Covenant"): A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R....
BAAL-PEOR – Name of a Canaanitish god. Peor was a mountain in Moab (Num. xxiii. 28), whence the special locality Beth-peor (Deut. iii. 29, etc.) was designated. It gave its name to the Ba'al who was there worshiped, and to whose service...
BAAL-ZEBUB – Biblical Data: Name of a god of the Philistine city of Ekron, mentioned only in connection with the illness of Ahaziah, king of Israel, in 842 B.C. (II Kings i. 2, 3, 6, 16), when the sick monarch sent messengers to Ekron to...
BAALIM – Plural of "Baal"; occurs in the Bible fifteen times, always used with the article; not found in the Pentateuch nor in the poetical books. For a full discussion of the cult, see Ba'al-Worship. The true signification has been a...
BIBLE EXEGESIS – Jewish: 1. Israel has been called "the People of the Book"; it may as fitly be called "the people of Scripture exegesis," for exegesis in the largest sense of the word is in a way the one indigenous science which Israel has...
BOSHETH – Used concretely by the Prophets as "the shameful thing" to designate the Baalim and their images. (See Hosea ix. 10 and Jer. iii. 24, xi. 13, where the word is parallel with "the Baal" [compare Jer. iii. 24]). Later usage...
BRAZEN SERPENT – Biblical Data: An image set up by Moses which is said to have healed those who looked upon it. When the people of Israel, near the close of the desert wanderings, were marching southward to go around Edom to the east of...
BURNING BUSH – Biblical Data: The name commonly given to the tree from which the angel of Jehovah manifested himself to Moses in a flame of fire; the distinctive feature of the revelation being that the tree was not consumed (Ex. iii. 2-4).—In...