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J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, Canada.

Contributions:
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
CHALDEA – The Hebrew "Kasdim" (generally without the article) usually designates the Chaldeans as a people sometimes also their country (Jer. l. 10; li. 24, 35; Ezek. xi. 24, xvi. 29, xxiii. 15 et seq.) or the people together with the...
CHERUB – Biblical Data: The name of a winged being mentioned frequently in the Bible. The prophet Ezekiel describes the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces—of a lion, an ox, an eagle, and a man—the stature...
CHRONOLOGY – The science that treats of the computation and adjustment of time or periods of time, and of the record and arrangement of events in the order of time. The chronology of Jewish literature may be divided into two periods: (1)...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
ELAM – The great plain north of the Persian Gulf and east of the lower Tigris and the mountainous districts by which it is enclosed on the east and north. It is the "Elamtu" of the Babylonians and Assyrians and the "Elymais" of the...
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...
GENERATION – This many-sided word, like its equivalents in the modern versions of the Bible, is used to translate the Hebrew "dor" and "toledah" (the latter found only in the plural). The primary meaning of "dor" is "period"; the secondary,...
HAZAEL – The most powerful of the kings of Damascus, and a ruler of general historical as well as of Biblical importance. While Ahab was still reigning as King of Israel the prophet Elijah was ordered by Yhwh to anoint Hazael as the...
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF – In the article People of Israel the history of the Northern Kingdom in its wider relations is briefly set forth; here the details will be more fully sketched. The history may be divided into four periods. The first was a period...
ISRAEL, PEOPLE OF – In the Bible "Israel" is the national name of the people who are known racially as "Hebrews." In the tribal condition no comprehensive name was historically applied to the whole people. The story (Gen. xxxii. 24 et seq.) of the...
JAHVIST – The name given in modern Bible criticism to the supposed author of those portions of the Pentateuch (or of the Hexateuch) in which the name Yhwh is used for God in preference to the name "Elohim," which latter is employed by the...
JUDAH – Biblical Data: The fourth son of Jacob and Leah; born in Padan-aram (Gen. xxix. 35). It is he who suggests the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelite traders. He becomes surety for Benjamin, and prevails upon his father to let him go...
JUDAH, KINGDOM OF – Early Advantages. The legitimate successor of the kingdom established by David was the smaller kingdom to the south, which remained true to Solomon's son Rehoboam. Although the first titular king of Judah, he was the third king...
MOABITE STONE – Name usually given to the only known surviving inscribed monument of ancient Moab. It was discovered in 1868 at Dhiban, the ancient Dibon, four miles north of the River Arnon. When first seen by Europeans (including a German...
NINEVEH – City of Assyria. The form of its name is derived from the Masoretic text. It answers as nearly as possible to the native Assyrian form "Ninua." The origin of the name is obscure. Possibly it meant originally the seat of Ishtar,...
NIPPUR – Ancient name of a great city in central Babylonia whose ruined site is now known as Nuffar (Niffer), which is the same word in an Arabicized form. It is one of the oldest cities in the world at present identifiable by name and...
NO-AMON – Name designating the city of Thebes, in Egypt, and equivalent to "No, the city of the god Amon"; found in Nah. iii. 8 (comp. Jer. xlvi. 25, where Amon is spoken of as the god of No). The current form is the later Hebrew...
NOAH – Biblical Data: Son of Lamech and the ninth in descent from Adam. In the midst ofabounding corruption he alone was "righteous and blameless in his generations" and "walked with God" (Gen. vi. 9). Hence, when all his...
NOB – City or village of priests where David received holy bread when in pressing need of food at the beginning of his persecution by Saul (I Sam. xxi. 1-9), for which nearly the whole community was put to death. It is also referred...
PROPHETS AND PROPHECY – Biblical Data and Critical View: Though many ancient peoples had their prophets, the term has received its popular acceptation from Israel alone, because, taken as a class, the Hebrew prophets have been without parallel in human...