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Julius H. Greenstone,

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
GEDALLAH – Son of Ahikam, through whose influence Jeremiah was saved from the fury of the mob, and grandson of Shaphan the scribe (Jer. xxvi. 24; II Kings xxii.; II Chron. xxxiv.); probably cousin of Michaiah, son of Gemariah (Jer. xxxvi....
GEṬ – The earliest use of the geṭ, an institution peculiar to the Jews, can not be established with certainty. Although the suggestion of the Rabbis that it has existed among the Jews since the time of Abraham (Yalḳ. Shime'oni, i. 95)...
GEZERAH – Examples. A rabbinical enactment issued as a guard or preventive measure; also a prohibition or restriction generally; from the root "gazar" (to cut; to decide). The term is especially applied to a negative ordinance ("taḳḳanah"...
GIFTS – Biblical Data: The interchange of gifts was a custom common among the early Israelites in the ordinary transactions of life as well as at all family celebrations. The subordinate gave presents to his superior "to smooth his...
GIFTS – Biblical Data: The interchange of gifts was a custom common among the early Israelites in the ordinary transactions of life as well as at all family celebrations. The subordinate gave presents to his superior "to smooth his...
GLEANING OF THE FIELDS – Biblical Data: The remains of a crop after harvesting, which must be left for the poor. The Mosaic law enjoins: "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou...
GLEANING OF THE FIELDS – Biblical Data: The remains of a crop after harvesting, which must be left for the poor. The Mosaic law enjoins: "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou...
ḤALALAH – The female issue of a priest's connection with a divorced woman or widow, a connection regarded as illegal. According to the Biblical law, a priest ("kohen") could not marry a harlot, or one "profaned" ("ḥalalah"), or a divorced...
ḤALILAH – Biblical term denoting "far be it [from me, thee, etc.]." In Talmudic literature it has two distinct meanings, derived from the two meanings of the root "ḥalal" (to profane; pollute). In some instances its signification is...
ḤALIẒAH – The Ḥaliẓah Shoe.(After Bodensehatz, 1748)The ceremony of the taking off of a brother-in-law's shoe by the widow of a brother who has died childless, through which ceremony he is released from the obligation of marrying her, and...
ḤALLAH – The priest's share of the dough. The Biblical law in the case of ḥallah (Num. xv. 17-21; comp. Neh. x. 38), as in the case of the heave-offering ("terumah"; Num. xviii. 11), is indefinite. It enjoins the separation of the ḥallah...
ḤAZAḲAH – The term has various meanings in the Talmud; the one most cognate to the original meaning of the Hebrew root is that of "taking possession," which act constituted acquisition with regard to both movable and immovable property...
HEALTH LAWS – The preservation of physical well-being is looked upon in Judaism as a religious command. "And live through them, but not die through them" (Yoma 85b, based on Lev. xviii. 5), was the principle applied to all the laws of the...
HEFḲER – Ownerless property, rendered so either by the formal renunciation of the owner, or by an act of the court (Giṭ. 36b), or by the death of a proselyte who has left no Jewish heirs (B. B. 149a; Maimonides, "Yad," Zekiyyah, i. 6)....
HERESY AND HERETICS – The Greek term άίρεσις originally denoted "division," "sect," "religious" or "philosophical party," and is applied by Josephus ("B. J." ii. 8, § 1, and elsewhere) to the three Jewish sects—Sadducees, Pharisees, and Essenes...
HIRING AND LETTING – Hiring is a transaction by which parties, for a compensation, contract for a definite period for (a) the use of property or (b) personal service.I. The Mishnah (B. M. 93a) distinguishes four kinds of bailees: (1) the gratuitous...
HOLY DAYS – Biblical Data and Critical View. See Festivals.—In Talmudic Law: Upon the six holy days in the Jewish calendar—the first and seventh days of Passover, the first and eighth days of Sukkot (Tabernacles), the day of Shebu'ot...
HORAYOT – The name of a Talmudic treatise in Seder Neziḳin ("damages"), the fourth in order of the six "sedarim" of the Mishnah. In the Mishnah edition it occupies the tenth and last place in the "seder"; in the Babylonian Talmud the...
HOSPITALITY – Biblical Data: The "ger," the sojourner who lived with a Hebrew family or clan, was assured by the Biblical law not only of protection against oppression (Ex. xxiii. 9) and deceit (Lev. xix. 33), but also of love from the...
HOSPITALITY – Biblical Data: The "ger," the sojourner who lived with a Hebrew family or clan, was assured by the Biblical law not only of protection against oppression (Ex. xxiii. 9) and deceit (Lev. xix. 33), but also of love from the...
HUSBAND AND WIFE – Legal Relations: As a punishment for her initiative in the first sin, the wife is to be subjected to her husband, and he is to rule over her (Gen. iii. 16). The husband is her owner ("ba'al"); and she is regarded as his...
IDENTITY, PROOF OF – In criminal cases the witnesses were required to be certain of the identity both of the accused and of the victim, as well as of the nationality to which the victim belonged (Sanh. 40b). When the accused succeeded in escaping...
IGNORANCE OF THE LAW – Through the institution of Hatra'ah, warning by the witnesses before the crime was committed was made by the Rabbis a prerequisite to the infliction of punishment for all criminal acts (Sanh. 8b). The warning once given, the...
ILLEGITIMACY – The state of being born out of lawful wedlock; in Jewish law, the state of being born of any of the marriages prohibited in the Bible and for which the punishment is excision ("karet"; Yeb. 49a; Maimonides, "Yad," Issure Biah,...
IMPRISONMENT – Imprisonment as a punishment for crime is not known in Mosaic law. The few apparent cases mentioned in the Pentateuch (Lev. xxiv. 12; Num. xv. 34) refer in fact to the temporary detention of the criminal until sentence could be...