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Julius H. Greenstone,

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
INHERITANCE – Biblical Data: Among the early Hebrews, as well as among many other nations of antiquity, custom decided that the next of kin should enter upon the possession of the estate of a deceased person. The first-born son usually...
INSANITY – Mental disease. Among the Jews the proportion of insane has been observed to be very large. From statistics collected by Buschan he concludes that they are four to six times more liable to mental disease than are non-Jews....
INTENTION – An intelligent purpose to do a certain act. In criminal cases wrongful intent must accompany the wrongful act in order to make the culprit punishable by law. While in the common law, when any wrongful act has been committed, it...
JACOB – Biblical Data: Third patriarch; son of Isaac and Rebekah, and ancestor of the Israelites. Hewas born when his father was sixty years old and after his mother had been barren for twenty years. For the account of his birth and...
JUDGE – Biblical Data: The common Hebrew equivalent for "judge" is "shofeṭ," a term found also in the Phenician as "sufeṭ" (= "regulator"); the latter is a name given to those who had chief control in the Sidonian colonies, and to the...
JUDGE – Biblical Data: The common Hebrew equivalent for "judge" is "shofeṭ," a term found also in the Phenician as "sufeṭ" (= "regulator"); the latter is a name given to those who had chief control in the Sidonian colonies, and to the...
JUDGMENT – The sentence or final order of a court in a civil or criminal proceeding, enforceable by the appropriate modes of execution appointed by law. In criminal cases, according to Talmudic law, the judgment was pronounced by the chief...
KASHER – Original meaning, "fit," "proper" (as in Esth. viii. 5; Eccl. x. 10, xi. 6); later, in rabbinical literature, it took the meaning of "fit," "permitted," in contradistinction to "pasul" and "terefah" (="unfit," "forbidden"),...
KETUBAH – Legal: A marriage contract, containing among other things the settlement on the wife of a certain amount payable at her husband's death or on her being divorced. This institution was established by the Rabbis in order to put a...
LAMP, SABBATH – Special lamp or chandelier used in Jewish households on Sabbath eve. The lighting of a special lamp on Sabbath eve, regarded as a religious duty, is of early pharisaic origin (see Sabbath). The early tannaim speak of it as a...
LAWS, NOACHIAN – The Seven Laws. Laws which were supposed by the Rabbis to have been binding upon mankind at large even before the revelation at Sinai, and which are still binding upon non-Jews. The term Noachian indicates the universality of...
LEAVEN – Fermenting dough ( = "to be sour," "fermented"; Aramaic, ). Leavened bread was probably a common article of food among the ancient Israelites (Hos. vii. 4), while unleavened bread ("maẓẓot") was prepared when food was required...
MAJORITY – 1. More than half of a given number or group; the greater part: applied to opinions. In their endeavor to find a Biblical basis for every principle of law the Rabbis interpreted Ex. xxiii. 2 so as to derive the majority...
MARRIAGE – Forms of the Marriage Relation. —Biblical Data: The earliest Hebrew literature represents a comparatively high development of social and domestic life. Of primitive conditions of polyandry, such as existed among the early Arabs,...
MARRIAGE LAWS – Age for Marriage. The first positive commandment of the Bible, according to rabbinic interpretation (Maimonides, "Minyan ha-Miẓwot," 212), is that concerning the propagation of the human species (Gen. i. 28). It is thus...
MARTYRDOM, RESTRICTION OF – True to the principle current in rabbinical literature—"live through them [the laws], but do not die through them" (Yoma 85b, based on Lev. xviii. 5)—the Rabbis endeavored to restrain the desire for martyrdom on the part of the...
MELIḤAH – The process of salting meat in order to make it ritually fit (kasher) for cooking. The prohibition against partaking of blood was extended by the Rabbis to include, under certain conditions, flesh containing blood (based on Gen....
MIḲWEH – Literally, a "collection," a "collected mass," especially of water (Gen. i. 10; Ex. vii. 19; Lev. xi. 36; comp. Isa. xxii. 11). Because of the use made of this word in connection with ritual purification (Lev. xi. 36), it has...
MILK – A common article of food among the ancient Hebrews.—Biblical Data: Palestine is praised in the Bible as a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. iii. 8 et al.), milk representing the common necessities of life, and honey...
MILK – A common article of food among the ancient Hebrews.—Biblical Data: Palestine is praised in the Bible as a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. iii. 8 et al.), milk representing the common necessities of life, and honey...
MI'UN – A Hebrew word signifying "refusal, denial, or protest"; used technically by the Rabbis to denote a woman's protest against a marriage contracted for her during her minority; also the annulment of such a marriage.A marriage...
MIZRAḤ – Hebrew term denoting the rising of the sun, the east (Num. xxi. 11; Ps. I. 1); also used to designate an ornamental picture hung on the eastern wall of the house, or in front of the readingdesk in the synagogue, and applied to...
MUSAF – Additional offering or prayer. Besides the regular morning and afternoon sacrifices offered in the Temple, the Law provided for additionalofferings to be brought on Sabbaths, New Moons, the three festivals, New-Year, and the Day...
'OMER, LAG BE- – Thirty-third day in the period of the counting of the 'omer ("Lag" = , the numerical value of which is 33), corresponding to the 18th day of Iyyar. This day is celebrated as a semi-holiday, although the reason for this...
PERJURY – The violation of an oath or solemn promise; solemn assertion of a falsity. While perjury was regarded as one of the greatest sins (Zech. v. 4), and the perjurer was not considered worthy to enter the holy places (Ps. xv. 1-4),...