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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Meyer Kayserling,

(deceased), Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ABULAFIA – Name of a widely scattered Jewish family of Spanish origin, one of whose branches, for the sake of clearer designation, bore the surname of Ha-Levi. Members of this family were found in various cities of the Orient and in Africa...
ABULAFIA, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL – One of the earliest cabalists; born 1240 at Saragossa, in Aragon; died some time after 1291. Very early in life he was taken by his parents to Tudela, in Navarre, where his aged father carefully instructed him in the Bible and...
ABULAFIA, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL – One of the earliest cabalists; born 1240 at Saragossa, in Aragon; died some time after 1291. Very early in life he was taken by his parents to Tudela, in Navarre, where his aged father carefully instructed him in the Bible and...
AÇAN, MOSES – Identical perhaps with the Moses ben Joseph Ḥazan, who lived in 1245 at Toledo, and maintained business connections with Alfonso X., the Wise, king of Castile. When Alfonso was in Cuença in 1271, Moses Açan informed him of the...
AÇAN, MOSES DE ZARAGUA – Native of Catalonia, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He wrote a rimed treatise on chess in the Catalonian dialect, which he begins by referring to the creation of the world, and exhorts his fellow man to glorify the...
ACAZ, JACOB – Keeper of the royal lions in Saragossa. In 1384 or 1385, by order of King Pedro of Aragon, Acaz took some lions to Navarre as a present to King Charles II. A certain Abraham Azen is mentioned in 1408 as his successor in...
ACOSTA, CRISTÓVAL – Spanish physician and botanist of the sixteenth century. He was born in Africa, whither his parents fled when exiled from Spain. He studied medicine, and for several years traveled through Africa and Asia, particularly through...
ADAVI, MOSES BEN SAMUEL – A Talmudic scholar and author, who flourished in Tunis about the middle of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of Isaac Lumbroso and Abraham Ḥayat. Adavi was the author of novellæ and collectanea to several treatises of the...
ADIBE, JACOB – A Jew, exiled from Portugal in 1496, who dwelt at Azamor in the province of Duccala, Morocco. In 1512 the ruler of Azamor had surrendered to the sovereignty of Portugal, but soon renounced his allegiance. King Manuel thereupon...
ADJIMAN – Jewish family in Turkey, several members of which were treasurers and intendants-general of the janizaries. Meir Adjiman, who lived under Selim III., possessed such influence that he was able to promote a simple janizary private...
ADRET, MOSES – Cabalist of the eighteenth century; lived and died in Smyrna. He possessed an extraordinary memory and was thoroughly acquainted with Talmudic and rabbinic literature. He composed twelve works, among which were commentaries on...
ADRET, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM – Spanish rabbi; born in 1235 at Barcelona; died in 1310. As a rabbinical authority hisfame was such that he was designated as El Rab d'España ("The Rabbi of Spain"). A manuscript purporting to be a certificate of indebtedness,...
AFIA, AARON – A physician, philosopher, and mathematician of Salonica, who lived about 1540. He was the teacher of Daniel ben Peraḥyah, whom he assisted in the translation from the Spanish into Hebrew of Abraham Zacuto's "Almanac." He was...
AGUILAR – A district in the Spanish province of Valencia, which sheltered a considerable Jewish congregation in the Middle Ages. In consequence of the persecution by the Almohades, many of the Jews resident there pretended for a time to...
AGUILAR, DIEGO D' – A Marano who flourished in the eighteenth century; born probably in Spain; died at London in 1759. In 1722 he went from Lisbon to London, and thence to Vienna. From 1725 to 1747 he held the tobacco monopoly in Austria, and had...
AGUILAR, JACOB DE – Pupil of Abraham de Fonseca at Hamburg, and ḥakam in one of the Brazilian communities, about 1640. M. K.
AGUILAR (AGUYLAR), MOSES RAPHAELDE – Born probably in Portugal; died in Amsterdam, Dec. 15, 1679. He was ḥakam and principal of the Talmud Torah at Amsterdam. In 1642 he went with Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, as ḥazan, to Brazil, where he remained till the reconquest of...
AKERMAN, RACHEL – The earliest Jewess to write German poetry; born probably at Vienna, 1522; died at Iglau, Moravia, 1544. She appears to have received an excellent education, having studied both Latin and Greek. She soon exhibited poetical...
AKIBA HA-KOHEN, OF OFEN – An eminent scholar, who lived in Hungary and Bohemia in the second half of the fifteenth century; died at Prague 1496. His learning, wealth, and benevolence secured for him the title "Nasi" (Prince), and an influential position...
ALAMAN, ASHKENAZI – Name of a many-branched and wide-spread Jewish family in the Turkish empire, whose ancestor, Joseph ben Solomon of Ofen (Buda), Hungary, is said to have been at the head of a deputation to hand over the keys of the citadel of...
ALBAGAL, SOLOMON IBN – A Spanish farmer of taxes who lived in Villa-Real or Ciudad-Real, and held office during the reign of Maria de Molina (1300-10). He was the owner of a large fulling-mill, named "Batanejo," in Guadiana, which, when disposed of by...
ALBALIA – Name of one of the more ancient Jewish families in Spain. The tradition among its members was that they were descended from Baruch, the friend and companion of the prophet Jeremiah, or, according to more numerous and also more...
ALBAS, MOSES BEN MAIMON – Cabalist of the sixteenth century; lived in northwest Africa. He was the author of the cabalistic work "Hekal ha-ḳodesh" (The Holy Temple), which he began in 1575. It is a commentary on the prayer-book, compiled from the Zohar...
ALBAS, SAMUEL – Rabbi at Fez; born 1697; died 1749. He was well read in the Talmud and in rabbinical literature, and was highly esteemed by Ḥayyim ibn Atar and other of his contemporaries. He composed novellæ on the treatise 'Abodah Zarah of...
ALBELDA – A town of Old Castile, in the vicinity of Logroño, which was inhabited by Jews as early as the eleventh century. The Jewish congregation there was subject to the authority of the bishop of Calahorra, and by order of Alfonso X....