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Caspar Levias, M.A.

Formerly Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
MAḲRE DARDEḲE – Name given in the Middle Ages to Hebrew glossaries primarily intended for the use of students of the Bible; its literal meaning is "teacher of children." The first and most noteworthy work of this kind is the one published at...
MASORAH – The system of critical notes on the external form of the Biblical text. This system of notes represents the literary labors of innumerable scholars, of which the beginning falls probably in pre-Maccabean times and the end...
MESHA – King of Moab, tributary to Ahab, King of Israel. He was a sheepmaster, and paid the King of Israel an annual tax consisting of the wool of 100,000 lambs and of 100,000 rams (II Kings iii. 4). He rebelled against Israel and...
METURGEMAN – With the return of the exiles from captivity the religious instruction of the people was put into the hands of the Levites (Neh. viii. 7-9; II Chron. xvii. 8, 9; xxxv. 3). These functionaries were called ("teachers"). In all...
NAḲDANIM – Punctuators or Masoretic annotators; the successors of the Masorites proper. Their activity consisted in collecting and conserving Masoretic material, revising the consonantal text produced by professional scribes, and...
NUMBERS AND NUMERALS – Numerical Notation. The letters of the alphabet were used as numerical symbols as early as the Maccabean period (comp. Numismatics). Whether such a usage was known in earlier times also, whether there existed in Israel, as among...
PRONUNCIATION, MODERN, OF HEBREW – Like Syriac, and probably under its influence, Hebrew has been handed down with a twofold pronunciation, the Ashkenazic and the Sephardic. The former is usually traced to Babylonia, the latter to Palestine. There are at present...
SIMEON, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: This tribe traces its descent from Simeon, second son of Jacob by Leah. He was the brother of Levi and Dinah, according to Gen. xxxvi. 25, xlix. 5, but elsewhere (ib. xxx. 1-9, xlvi. 8-15) it is stated that he had...
SIMEON, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: This tribe traces its descent from Simeon, second son of Jacob by Leah. He was the brother of Levi and Dinah, according to Gen. xxxvi. 25, xlix. 5, but elsewhere (ib. xxx. 1-9, xlvi. 8-15) it is stated that he had...
SIMEON, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: This tribe traces its descent from Simeon, second son of Jacob by Leah. He was the brother of Levi and Dinah, according to Gen. xxxvi. 25, xlix. 5, but elsewhere (ib. xxx. 1-9, xlvi. 8-15) it is stated that he had...
VOCALIZATION – Semitic Skeleton Writing. All Semitic script, excepting Ethiopic and Assyro-Babylonian, the latter of which in its origin is held by many to be not Semitic, is purely consonantal, the reader being left to supply the vowels. The...