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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
DÜSSELDORF – City in Rhenish Prussia, situated on the right bank of the Rhine. According to the census of 1900 it has about 2,600 Jews (500 households)in a total population of 213,767. In 1890 it had 1,401 Jews in a total population of...
DYHERNFURTH – Town in Prussian Silesia, with 1,463 inhabitants; founded Jan. 20, 1663. In that year the Austrian emperor Leopold I., desiring to reward the Silesian chancellor, Baron von Dyhern, gave his estate Przig the rights and status of...
EDUCATION – Biblical and Pre-Talmudical Data: The moral and religious training of the people from childhood up was regarded by the Jews from the very beginning of their history as one of the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord...
EGER – A family established for a long time at Halberstadt, Germany. It appears to have been originally known by the name of "Gins" or "Ginsmann," by which appellation the first two definitely authenticated members, Mayer and David,...
EINBECK – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. That Jews lived there at a very early date is shown by the fact that some Einbeck Jews were burned at the stake in 1298. In a document of 1355 a Jews' street and a "schole der Joden" are...
EISENMENGER, JOHANN ANDREAS – Studies Rabbinical Literature. Anti-Jewish author; born in Mannheim 1654; died in Heidelberg Dec. 20, 1704. The son of an official in the service of the Elector of the Palatinate, Eisenmenger received a good education, and...
EISENSTADT – City in the county of Oedenburg (Sopron), Hungary. The Jewish community of Eisenstadt is the only community of Hungary that has an independent political existence with an organization of its own, though the neighboring...
ELIANO, VITTORIO – Jewish convert to Christianity; grandson of Elijah Levita; lived in Italy in the sixteenth century; became priest and canon. Well versed in Hebrew literature, he was appointed censor of Hebrew books, first at Cremona, afterward...
EMDEN – Prussian maritime town in the province of Hanover. It is not known when Jews first settled there. In the sixteenth century David Gans mentions ("Ẓemaḥ Dawid," 1581, ii.) Jews at Emden. In the letter of complaints (March 9, 1590)...
ENDINGEN – Town of Baden, near Freiburg, famous in Jewish history through the blood accusationof 1470. In that year three Jews were burned at the stake upon a charge of having murdered eight years previously a Christian family of four...
ENGRAVING AND ENGRAVERS – Biblical Data: Engraving is the act and art of cutting letters, figures, and the like, on stone, wood, or metal. The account of the equipment of the high priest (Ex. xxviii., xxxix.) evidences that this art had been developed to...
ENRIQUEZ (HENRIQUEZ) – Frequently recurring Spanish surname, often found combined with other surnames, as "Bueno Enriquez," "Gomez Enriquez," "Gabay Enriquez," etc. Many Maranos in Spain, Portugal, Amsterdam, London, Jamaica, Surinam, Barbados, New...
EPHRAIM, VEITEL-HEINE – German financier; died at Berlin in 1775. The name means "Veitel, the son of Heine [German for "Ḥayyim"], the son of Ephraim." He was jeweler to the Prussian court and mint-master under Frederick William I. and Frederick the...
ERACH – A tax on property for communal purposes. The direct taxes which were levied by the Jewish congregations were mostly twofold: (1) on every family ("rashe bayit"), and (2) on property, both real estate and chattels, according to...
ESCUDERO, LORENÇO – Spanish poet; born at Cordova of Marano parentage; died about 1683. After his conversion to Judaism he lived in great poverty in Amsterdam. The Marquis of Caracena, then governor of Flanders, urged him to return to Christianity;...
ESKELES, BERNHARD, FREIHERR VON – Austrian financier; born at Vienna 1753; died at Hietzing, near Vienna, Aug. 7, 1839. He was the posthumous son of Rabbi Berush Eskeles. At an early age he went to Amsterdam, where he entered a commercial house, of which he...
ESPINOSA, BENJAMIN – Italian Hebraist of the eighteenth century; member of the rabbinical college at Leghorn. He published "Peri'Eẓ, Hadar," a ritual for certain special occasions, Leghorn, 1762, and "Yefeh Nof," containing seven didactic poems and...
ESSEK – Fortified town in Austria-Hungary, the second largest of Croatia; situated on the Drave. It has a population of about 18,000, including 1,600 Jews. Jews did not enjoy the privilege of residence there until 1792. They were,...
ESSEN – City in the Prussian district of Düsseldorf with 96,000 inhabitants (1895), including about 2,000 Jews. It developed from the convent of Essen, and until 1802 was under the rule of its abbesses. The presence of Jews in Essen is...
ETHAUSEN, ALEXANDER BEN MOSES – German scholar; lived at Fulda in the seventeenth century. He was the author of a Judæo-German work in two parts: the first, "Bet Yisrael," a history of the Jews up to the destruction of the Second Temple; and the second, "Bet...
ETTLINGER, JACOB – German rabbi and author, and one of the leaders of modern Orthodoxy; born at Carlsruhe March 17, 1798; died at Altona Dec. 7, 1871. He received his early education from his father Aaron, who was "Klausrabbiner" at Carlsruhe,...
EVORA – City in Portugal, and the seat of the rabbi of the province of Alemtejo. When the bride-elect of Don Alfonso, the only son of King John II., entered Evora (Nov. 27, 1490), the Jews of the city met her in solemn procession and...
EWALD, JOHANN LUDWIG – German pedagogue and theologian, and advocate of the Jews; born at Hain-zur-Dreieich, grand duchy of Hesse, Sept. 16, 1747; died at Carlsruhe March 19, 1822. He held various positions as preacher and professor, and toward the...
EYBESCHÜTZ, JONATHAN – German rabbi and Talmudist; born in Cracow about the year 1690; died in Altona Sept. 18, 1764. His father, Nathan (Nata), who was a grandson of the cabalistic author Nathan Spira, was called as rabbi to Elbenschitz, Moravia,...
FAIRS – Ancient Fairs. Periodical assemblies for the purchase and the sale of goods. Talmudic authorities were opposed to the attendance of Jews at fairs on the ground that they are an outgrowth of pagan festivals. The Talmudic word for...