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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ARYEH LOEB BEN JACOB JOSHUA – German Talmudist and author; born 1715; died at Hanover March 6, 1789. He was a son of the author of "Pene Yehoshua'," who died as rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main 1755. In his youth he was his father's assistant, and taught as...
ARYEH LOEB BEN SAUL – Polish rabbi; born in Cracow about 1690; died at Amsterdam April 2, 1755. He came of a famous family of rabbis. His father Saul had been rabbi of Cracow; his grandfather was Rabbi Hoeschl of Cracow. In 1707 he married Miriam,...
ASCAMA – The name given by Spanish and Portuguese Jewish communities to the laws governing their internal administration. These laws, approved and accepted as binding by the members, called in general "YeḦidim," were, for the most part,...
ASCHAFFENBURG – Important town on the right bank of the Main in Bavaria. Jews in Aschaffenburg are first mentioned in the thirteenth century, when reference is made to a Rabbi Abraham of Aschaffenburg. In the reports of the persecution which...
ASH – A family name which is an abbreviation of "Altschul" or "Eisenstadt" ( ). Such abbreviations are especially frequent in names of which the second part begins with the sound "s," for which the Hebrew puts ש. So "Lasch" ( ) is put...
ASHER, JACOB ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LOEB ḲALMANḲES – Cabalistic and rabbinical author; born probably in Lemberg about the beginning of the seventeenth century; died there April 3, 1681. He wrote (1) "Sefer ha-Eshel" (The Book of the Grove), a volume of homilies, of which the first...
ASHER BEN JEHIEL – Eminent Talmudist; born in western Germany about 1250; died in Toledo, Spain, 1328. His family was prominent for learning and piety; his father having been a learned Talmudist, and one of his ancestors (not his grandfather)...
ASHKENAZ – Germany: name applied generally in medieval rabbinical literature to that country. Its origin in this particular is obscure. Among the sources quoted by Zunz ("Ritus," p. 66) the ritual of Amram Gaon (about 850) is perhaps the...
ASHKENAZI, BEZALEL – One of the leading Oriental Talmudists and rabbis of his day; born toward the end of the sixteenth century. Descended from a family of German scholars, he was probably born in Palestine. The greater part of his life was spent in...
ASHKENAZI, JOSEPH B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – Talmudist and rabbi; born in Germany about 1550; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1628. His first teacher was the Frankfort rabbi Eliezer Treves, after whose death (about 1567) he completed his Talmudic studies under Ḥayyim b....
ASHKENAZI, SAUL COHEN – Religious philosopher of German descent, as his name indicates; born in Candia 1470; died at Constantinople May 28, 1523. He was a disciple of Elijah Delmedigo, who induced him to devote his attention to philosophy. His...
ASHKENAZI, SOLOMON BEN NATHAN – Court physician of King Sigismund II., Augustus of Poland (1548-72), and Turkish diplomat; born probably about 1520; died 1602. A descendant of a German family settled in Udine (Italy), he came in his early youth to Cracow,...
ASHMURAH – A special term (compare "a watch in the night," Ps. xc. 4) in the synagogal rite of Avignon, denoting the early morning service on Hoshana Rabbah, the seventh day of the Feast of Tabernacles.Bibliography: Zunz, Ritus der...
ASOLO – Town in the province of Treviso, Italy. A Jewish congregation existed there in the middle of the sixteenth century, perhaps even at the end of the fifteenth. In 1547 there were in Asolo 37 Jews, who lived in six houses close...
ATHENS, MODERN – The Jewish community of Athens is hardly thirty years old. One of the oldest families, if not the oldest, is that of Max Rothschild, a Bavarian Jew, who went to Greece in 1833 with King Otho. The community had neither synagogue...
AUERBACH – A family of scholars, the progenitor of which was Moses Auerbach, court Jew to the bishop of Regensburg, about 1497. One of his daughters, who went after her marriage to Cracow, is the reputed ancestress of the celebrated R....
AUERBACH, BENJAMIN HIRSCH – One of the most prominent leaders of modern German orthodoxy; born at Neuwied in 1808; died at Halberstadt Sept. 30, 1872. His father, Abraham Auerbach—a descendant of an old rabbinical family which traced its origin back to...
AUERBACH, JOSEPH DANZIGER – Author of "Darke Yesharim" (Paths of the Righteous), a treatise on ethics and morals in the Yiddish dialect, published in Amsterdam in 1758.Bibliography: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books British Museum, p. 63; Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim,...
AUERBACH, PEREZ B. MENAHEM NAHUM – Polish Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of the work, "Peër Halakah" (Ornament of the Halakah), Zolkiev, 1738, which contains novellæ to the Talmud, to the commentaries on the...
AUSSEE – Town in Moravia, Austria. It had a Jewish community in the seventeenth century. In 1622 Emperor Ferdinand II. presented the town to Prince Karl of Lichtenstein, on condition that none but Catholics should be permitted to reside...
AUSTERLITZ – Jewish Community in Twelfth Century. Town in Moravia, Austria. Its Jewish congregation is one of the oldest in the province; according to some historians, dating from the beginning of the twelfth century. Records seem to point...
AUSTERLITZ – Name of a Jewish family. As is the case with all names derived from places, the surname "Austerlitz" does not necessarily signify that all the persons so named belong to one family. It denotes that an ancestor of the person came...
AUSTRIA – Empire in Europe now united with the kingdom of Hungary; its territorial extent has changed considerably during the past thousand years.From the Earliest Times to the Charter of Frederick II. (1238): Important Rabbis. The date...
AUXERRE – Chief city of the department of Yonne, France. Since the eleventh century an important community of Jews existed here and was presided over by eminent rabbis. These rabbis, knownas "the sages of Auxerre," were in correspondence...
AVÉ-LALLEMENT, FREDERICK CHRISTIAN BENEDICT – Noted criminologist; born in Lübeck May 23, 1809; died there July 20, 1892. In his standard work, "Das Deutsche Gaunertum," Leipsic, 1858-62, he devotes a chapter to the Jews, in which he expresses views unfavorable to their...