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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
AYYAS, JUDAH – A commentator and casuist; born in North Africa about 1690; died at Jerusalem Sept. 11, 1760. He pursued his Talmudic studies at Algiers under the supervision of Solomon Ẓeror, rabbi of that city. From 1728 to 1756 Ayyas...
AZEVEDO, DAVID COHEN D' – akam of Amsterdam in the eighteenth century; died in 1792. He devoted himself to rabbinical studies and was elected Ḥakam in Amsterdam in 1782. He published a sermon entitled "Triumphos da Virtude: Sermão á Occasião do Natalicio...
AZEVEDO, DAVID SALOM D' – Diplomat, of the seventeenth century; died 1699. He was minister resident at Amsterdam of the dey of Algeria, and in that capacity negotiated a commercial treaty with the Netherlands. He was also an energetic member of the...
AZEVEDO, FRANCISCO D' – Portuguese Marano of the seventeenth century. He was sent in 1673 to Rome to implore the papal curia to curb the inhumanity of the Inquisition. Well supplied with money, and seconded by the Jesuits—who were not in sympathy with...
AZULAI, AZULAY – A family descended from Spanish exiles who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (see No. 4) derives the family name from the initials of the Hebrew...
AZULAI, AZULAY – A family descended from Spanish exiles who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (see No. 4) derives the family name from the initials of the Hebrew...
AZULAI, AZULAY – A family descended from Spanish exiles who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (see No. 4) derives the family name from the initials of the Hebrew...
BACAU – Capital of a district of the same name, situated in the southwest of Moldavia, a division of Rumania, with a population of 15,000, one-half of whom are Jews. A census taken in 1876 enumerated 743 Jewish families at that time....
BACHARACH – A name frequent among German Jews. From the twelfth, or at any rate from the fifteenth century, the name Bacharach, in various spellings—as Bacharach, Bachrach, Bachrich, etc.—is found among the Ashkenazim in all parts of...
BACHARACH, ABRAHAM SAMUEL – Rabbi; born about 1575; died in Gernsheim, grandduchy of Hesse, May 26, 1615. He seems to have come from the city of Worms, but is first met with at Prague, where, in 1600, he married Eva, the granddaughter of the chief rabbi of...
BACHARACH, EVA – Hebraist and rabbinical scholar; born at Prague about 1580; died in Sofia, 1651. She was the daughter of Isaac ben Simson ha-Kohen, and through her mother, Vögele, granddaughter of the well-known rabbi of Prague, Löwe ben...
BACHARACH, JAIR ḤAYYIM – His Rabbinical Career. German rabbi; born at Leipnik, Moravia, 1639; died in Worms Jan. 1, 1702. At the age of twelve he came with his father, Samson, to Worms (1653), and two years later married Särlan, the daughter of Sussman...
BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON – Son of Samuel and Eva Bacharach; born in 1607; died at Worms April 19, 1670. After the death of his father his mother took him to Prague, where he was educated by his maternal uncle, Ḥayyim ha-Kohen. In 1627 he married Dobrusch,...
BACHRACH, JACOB BEN MOSES – A noted apologist of rabbinical Judaism; born at Seiny, inthe government of Suwalki, Russia, May 9, 1824; died in Bielostok Dec. 29, 1896. He received his earliest instruction from his grandfather, Judah Bachrach. For years he...
BACHRACH, JUDAH B. JOSHUA HESKIEL – Rabbi and Talmudist; born in Lithuania about 1775; died at Seiny, government of Suwalki, April 25, 1846. He was a lineal descendant in the seventh generation of Tobias Bachrach, who, together with Israel ben Shalom, was beheaded...
BADEN – City in Lower Austria. After the expulsion of the Jews from Lower Austria in 1670, none lived in Baden until 1805, when the Jew Isaac Schischa, who had formerly lived in Mattersdorf, Hungary, succeeded in obtaining permission...
BAENA, FRANCISCO DE – Spanish poet of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, brother of Juan Alfonso de Baena, and secretary to the governor Diego de Ribera. One of his poems appears in his brother's "Cancionero." Recent investigation points to the...
BAENA, JUAN ALFONSO DE – Spanish troubadour in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; born at Baena, Cordova. He was "escribano escribiente" (notarial secretary) at the court of John II. Under the title "Cancionero del Judino Juan Alfonso de Baena," he...
BAIERSDORF – Small city in Bavaria, near Erlangen, once the summer abode of the margraves of Kulmbach-Bayreuth. Little is known concerning the history of the Jews there. It is certain that in thefourteenth century a Jewish community had been...
BAIGNEUX-LES-JUIFS – Capital of a canton, arrondissement of Chatillon-sur-Seine, Côte d'Or, France. As the name indicates, there were Jewish inhabitants in this place during the Middle Ages. A secret inquiry was made between 1306 and 1308 into the...
BAJA – City on the Danube, in the county of Bács-Bodrog, Hungary. As early as the end of the eighteenth century, Baja, owing to its favorable location, was a bustling commercial town. The first Jewish families probably settled there...
BAKRI, DAVID BEN JOSEPH COEN – Chief of the Algerian Jews; financier; born about 1770; decapitated Feb. 4, 1811. His great financial abilities placed him early at the head of the important firm "Bakri Brothers," founded by his father. In 1797 David married...
BAKRI, JOSEPH COEN – Chief of the Algerian Jews; financier; born at Algiers in the middleof the eighteenth century; died at Leghorn in 1817. He was the founder of the renowned firm "Bakri Brothers," which played so great a part in the politics of...
BALEARIC ISLES – Early History. A group of islands in the Mediterranean, belonging to Spain, situated to the east of Valencia, the three principal of which are named Majorca (Spanish, Mallorca), Minorca (Menorca), and Iviça or Iviza (Ibiza). The...
BAMBERGER, ISAAC – German rabbi; born at Angenrod, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, Nov. 5, 1834; died at Königsberg Oct. 26, 1896. He received elementary instruction in Hebrew from his father, Mayer Bamberger, who was for fifty years a...