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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BANKING – Speaking strictly, Banking means the taking of money on deposit (banks of deposit), and loaning it out on interest (banks of issue). In this sense Banking is comparatively recent; only a few banks of deposit existing in the...
BAPTISTA, GIOVANNI GIONA GALILEO – Baptized Jew, professor of Hebrew, and librarian of the Vatican; born in Safed Oct. 28, 1588; died May 26, 1668. His Jewish name was Judah Jonah ben Isaac. He studied the Talmud and traveled as a rabbi through Italy and Poland;...
BAPTISTA, GIOVANNI SALOMO ROMANO ELIANO – Baptized Jew; ecclesiastical writer; born at Alexandria, Egypt; died in Rome March 3, 1589. He was a grandson of Elijah Levita, the famous Hebrew grammarian. Baptista traveled extensively in Germany, Turkey, Palestine, and...
BAR – Town in the district of Mohilev, province of Podolia, Russia, on the River Rov, affluent of the Bug; with a Jewish population of 8,000, of a total population of 10,614 (1897). The Jewish community of Bar is one of the oldest of...
BARBARY STATES – A region comprising the northwest of Africa from the Mediterranean to the Sahara, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. The words "Barbaria" ( ) and "Barbarians" ( ) are found in the Midrash; in Gen. R. lx. the...
BAREHEADEDNESS – Jewish custom has for ages required women to cover the hair as an evidence of their modesty before men, and required men to cover the head in order to show their humility and reverence before God.Bareheadedness of Women. In...
BARNAVE, ANTOINE PIERRE JOSEPH MARIE – French politician; member of the Assemblie Nationale; born at Grenoble in Dauphiny Oct. 22, 1761; guillotined in Paris Nov. 29, 1793. He was of a Protestant family. Barnave received his education in the law at home; and at the...
BASAN, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM – akam of the Portuguese community of Hamburg. In 1755 he published a prayer for a fast-day by the Portuguese congregation, proclaimed on the occasion of the great earthquake in Lisbon.D. A. Fe.
BASEL – In the Thirteenth Century. Capital of the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland, bordering on the grand duchy of Baden and on Alsace. Owing to its flourishing trade, it was inhabited by Jews as early as the middle of the thirteenth...
BASEL CONGRESS – An international Zionist convention held at Basel on Aug. 29, 30, and 31, 1897, in the Stadt Casino, and which was called at the instance of Dr. Theodore Herzl. It was attended by Jews from all parts of the world, its purpose...
BASEL-LAND – A canton of Switzerland. It did not admit the French Jews, who had bought property in Liestal, the capital of the canton, notwithstanding the treaties existing between Switzerland and France. Jews have only recently resided in...
BASEL PROGRAM – By this term is understood the program of Political Zionism drawn up at the first Basel Congress, as the aim of the political-Zionist movement. The Basel Program was unanimously accepted at the morning session of thesecond day...
BASSEVI VON TREUENBERG, JACOB – Court Jew and financier; born in 1580; died at Jung-BuntzlauMay 2, 1634. He entered business early in life, ultimately became very wealthy, and stood in high favor with the emperors Rudolph II., Matthias, and Ferdinand II., to...
BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL – Austrian author and communal worker; born in Kremsier Jan. 15, 1828. In his youth he frequented various yeshibot, acquiring secular learning in private; and in 1848 he went to Vienna, where he devoted himself to commercial life,...
BAVARIA – Earliest References. Kingdom in southern Germany. The settlement of Jewish merchants in Bavaria dates from the very earliest times. The legend that they dwelt in certain cities—as, for instance, Regensburg and Augsburg—before...
BAYONNE – History. Ark of the Law in the Bayonne Synagogue.(From Léon, "Histoire des Juifs à Bayonne.")Fortified city in the department of Basses-Pyrénées, in the extreme southwest of France. It is divided into Great and Little Bayonne...
BAZARJIK – A small town of eastern Rumelia, twenty-four miles from Philippopolis, containing a Jewish community of 1,700 in a total population of 17,000. It is said to date from the year 1492, or, according to Bianconi, from the expulsion...
BEBRI, MOSES BEN JUDAH – Ambassador from the sultan Mohammed IV. to King Charles XI. of Sweden; died May 29, 1673, at Amsterdam, where he was buried with great honors. His son, Judah Berbi, succeeded him as ambassador, and returned from Amsterdam to...
BEJA – City in Portugal that had, next to Santarem, the oldest Jewish community in Portugal. In a foro (charter) granted to the city of Beja toward the end of the twelfth century, it was enacted that every Jew passing through the town...
BELGIUM – One of the smaller states of western Europe. Under the Romans it formed one of the six provinces of ancient Gaul and bore the name "Gallia Belgica" (Gibbon, "Decline and Fall," vol. i. ch. i).Early Settlement. There are no...
BELGRADE – Capital of the kingdom of Servia, situated at the confluence of the Save and the Danube. After Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent had captured the city from the Hungarians in 1522, the Turks remained in possession until 1867, when...
BELLCAYRE – City in Catalonia, Spain; had Jewish inhabitants in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It was the birthplace of David of Bellcayre, the richest Jew of Barcelona, who owned in the ghetto of the latter city the finest...
BELMONTE, FRANCISCO DE XIMENES – Dutch diplomat; lived at Amsterdam during the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a nephew of Baron Manuel de Belmonte, whom he succeeded in 1706 as resident of the king of Spain in the Netherlands. The office of...
BEN JUDAH, ELIEZER – Palestinian editor; born at Luzhky, government of Wilna, Jan. 7, 1858; son of Judah Perlman—hence his name "Ben Judah." He received his early Talmudic education at the yeshibah of Rabbi Joseph Blücker at Polotzk, afterward was...
BENEVENTO – City in southern Italy; capital of the province of the same name; about 32 miles northeast of the city of Naples. Benjamin of Tudela visited it about 1165, and found there 200 Jewish families, having at their head three...