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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BENGAZI – City of Tripoli, Africa, on the east coast of the Gulf of Sidra. Little is known of the first settlement of the Jews there; according to local traditions, they came originally from Tripoli.The chief rabbis of the community in...
BENJAMIN ZE'EB WOLF BEN SHABBETHAI – Dayyan at Pinczow in the latter half of the seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He edited the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, with notes that are a digest of the works of the rabbinical authorities of the...
BERG – An independent duchy until 1815; at present part of the Prussian Rhine province. Jews settled here at an early period. In 1298 Count Wilhelm of Berg protected them against the hordes led by Rindfleisch. At the time of the Black...
BERGAMO – City in northern Italy. Here, as in other cities subject to the government of the Venetian republic, the right of residence was granted to Jews, who were chiefly engaged in money-lending. Documents relating to the Jews, and...
BERLIN – Capital of Prussia and of the German empire. Though mentioned as early as the year 1225, it was an unimportant place during the whole of the Middle Ages. Not much is known of the Jews there during that period, yet there is...
BERLIN CONGRESS – A meeting of the great European powers at Berlin between June 13 and July 13, 1878, to settle questions arising out of the Russo-Turkish war; by it many of the former provinces of Turkey were enfranchised and made independent....
BERLINER, ABRAHAM (ADOLF) – German theologian; historian; born in Obersitzko, province of Posen, Prussia, May 2, 1833; received his first education under his father, who was teacher in Obersitzko. He continued his education under various rabbis, preparing...
BERNAL, ISAAC (MARCUS) DE ALMEYDA – Spanish martyr; born in Montilla 1633; burned at the stake in St. Iago de Compostella(Galicia, Spain), in the month of March, 1655, at the age of twenty-two. He was a nephew of Abraham Nuñez Bernal. When only seventeen (1650) he...
BERNAYS, ISAAC – Chief rabbi in Hamburg; born 1792 at Mayence; died May 1, 1849, in Hamburg. After having finished his studies at the University of Würzburg, in which city he had been also a disciple of the wellknown Talmudist R. Abraham Bing,...
BERNSTORFF, CHRISTIAN GÜNTHER, COUNT OF – Danish and Prussian statesman; born April 3, 1769, in Copenhagen; died March 28, 1835. As early as 1787 he entered the diplomatic service through the influence of his father, Count Andreas Bernstorff. From 1789 to 1794 he served...
BESANÇON – City and county of France, in the department of Doubs. Although no mention is made of this city in Jewish sources, it is known that it had a prominent part in the history of the Jews and was also of some importance even from a...
BIEL (BIENNE) – Town in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. It had Jewish inhabitants as early as the city of Bern itself. In 1305 a few Jewish families were naturalized in consideration of a yearly tax of fifty pfennigs each. According to the...
BISENZ – Town in Moravia, Austria. About the earliest history of its Jews nothing is known. Pesina, whose "Mars Moravicus" was published in 1677, calls it "nidus Judæorum."In the time of the margraves (up to the fifteenth century) the...
BISLICHES – Editor of some valuable Hebrew works of medieval authors; born at Brody, Austria, at the end of the eighteenth century; died about 1851. He was married at the age of thirteen (a fact of which he bitterly complains), ultimately...
BISMARCK, PRINCE OTTO EDUARD LEOPOLD – Prussian statesman; born at Schönhausen April 1, 1815; died at Friedrichsruh July 30, 1898; member of the Prussian Diet (Vereinigter Landtag), 1847-51; representative of Prussia at the Bundestag at Frankfort-on-the-Main,...
BLOOD-MONEY IN RUMANIA – According to the common law of Moldavia and Wallachia, the murder of a person entailed not only the execution of the murderer, but also the imposition upon him, or if he were unknown upon the village nearest to the spot where...
BOJANOWO – A town in the district of Ravditsch, province of Posen, Germany. A Jewish community of one hundred and forty-four souls dwelt in Bojanowo as early as 1793. They were under the protection of the Boyanowskis, the lords of the...
BOLECHOW – Town in the district of Dolina, Galicia, Austria, the population of which in 1890 was 4,402, of whom half were Jews. The Jewish community dates from the day of the foundation of the place in 1612 by Nicholas Giedzinsky....
BONAFOUX, DANIEL ISRAEL – An active adherent of Shabbethai Ẓebi; lived at Smyrna in the seventeenth century. He was not disappointed when the apostasy of the latter was announced. At Shabbethai's death he pretended to have had visions and to have...
BONALD, LOUIS-GABRIEL-AMBROISE – French philosopher, politician, and anti-Jewish writer; born Oct. 2, 1774; died at Nomma Nov. 23, 1840. Being opposed to the Revolution of 1789, he emigrated in 1791 and settled at Heidelberg, where he wrote his first important...
BONAVOGLIO (ḤEFEZ), MOSES, OF MESSINA – Sicilian physician; born at the end of the fourteenth century; died 1447. Renowned for his learning and eloquence, he was deputed in 1428 by seventeen Jewish communities of Sicily to wait on King Alfonso V. for the purpose of...
BONDI, PHILIP – Austrian rabbi; born at Jinoschitz, Bohemia, Feb. 26, 1830. After having received a good education at home under the care of his father (Samuel), Bondi entered the gymnasium at Prague in 1844, and studied Talmud and Rabbinica...
BONN, JONAS BEN MOSES – Physician; lived in Frankfort-on-the-Main in the seventeenth century. Though not in the employ of the community, his name is subscribed to the articles of agreement drawn up in 1656 between the congregation of Frankfort and its...
BOREK – Soncino Border.(From the title-page of "Sefer Yehoshua," printed by Soncino. In the collection of Hon. Mayer Sulzberger.)Town in the district of Koschmin, province of Posen, Germany. So long as the city was under the domination...
BOSKOWITZ – Town in Moravia, about 21 miles to the north of Brünn. It has one of the oldest and most important communities in the province, though in numbers it had dwindled to 1,967 Jewish inhabitants in 1880. Even in early times there was...