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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
CACERES – A family, members of which have lived in Portugal, Holland, England, Mexico, Surinam, the West Indies, and the United States. They came, probably, from the city of Caceres in Spain.The first reference to any person bearing the...
CANSINO – Spanish-Jewish family, famous in history for its wealth and influence, its scholars and poets.Jacob Cansino I. served as an interpreter at Oran, a Spanish colony in northwestern Africa, under Charles V., until 1556, when he was...
CANSINO, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB – 1. Poet; lived in the seventeenth century. He is the author of "Aguddat Ezob" (A Bunch of Hyssop), a collection of poems and rhetorical compositions, in three parts, praised very highly by Isaac Cansino and David Abu al-Khair (...
CANSINO, ISAAC (BEN ḤAYYIM) – Poet and prominent member of the Jewish community of Oran; died in 1672; probably a brother of Jacob Cansino II. He was a liturgical poet of high attainments, and cantor in the synagogue on the Day of Atonement, an office...
CANSINO, JACOB – Vassal of his Catholic majesty and interpreter of languages in the places of Oran" (so styled by himself); died Sept. 19, 1666. He was the fifth in succession of the Cansino family to hold the office of royal interpreter. Upon...
CARNABAT – Town of eastern Rumelia or southern Bulgaria. According to tradition, Jews first established themselves at Carnabat about 1580; but the oldest tombstones decipherable bear date of 1686. Eliezer of Calo was chief rabbi of...
CARVALHO (CARVALLO), MORDECAI BARUCH – A wealthy Tunisian merchant; died Jan., 1785, at an advanced age. He devoted part of his time to rabbinical studies, and in 1752 succeeded his teacher, Isaac Lumbroso, whose best pupil he was, as rabbi of the Leghorn...
CASABLANCA – Port of Morocco, Africa, on the Atlantic ocean. The Jewish community, numbering 6,000, in a total population of 20,000 inhabitants, is of recent date. The majority of its members are engaged in commerce in grain, spices, etc.;...
CASSEL – City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. There was a persecution of the Jews at Wolfshagen, near Cassel, during the Black Death in 1348; and Hesse-Cassel is mentioned in the same year as a scene of persecution. In 1610...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO TARTAS, DAVID B. ABRAHAM – Printer in Amsterdam from 1663 to 1695, and publisher of a number of rabbinical writings, including prayer-books and ritualistic works, in Hebrew, Spanish, and Portuguese. His brother, Jacob de Castro Tartas, participated in the...
CASTRO TARTAS, ISAAC DE – Marano and martyr; born at Tartas, Gascony, about 1623; died at Lisbon Dec. 15 (22), 1647. He was a brother ofDavid Castro Tartas, and a relative of the physician Elijah Montalto, and was himself trained in philosophy and in the...
CHALCIS – Capital of the island of Eubœa in the Ægean sea; under Greek dominion since 1832. Benjamin of Tudela found 200 Jews on the island. There is also testimony to the early residence of Jews in Chalcis in a Hebrew inscription on a...
CHIOS – Island in the Ægean Sea; Turkish possession, 344 miles west of Smyrna. It is not known with any certainty when the Jews first established themselves at Chios. According to the local legends reported by the traveler Joseph...
CHRISTIAN, GUSTAV CHRISTOPHER – German author and Christian missionary; born of Jewish parents; baptized in 1719; died at Nuremberg about 1735. He was the author of two Judæo-German works: "Yesod Emunat Yeshu'a" (The Basis of the Faith of Jesus), Berlin, 1712;...
CHRISTIANI, FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT – Jewish convert to Christianity; born in the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Prossnitz at the beginning of the eighteenth. He was baptized in 1674 at Strasburg, having formerly borne the name of Baruch as ḥazzan at...
CHRISTIANI, MORITZ WILHELM – Author and Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Altorf at the end of the seventeenth century; died at Prague about 1740; probably a member of the Keyser family of Schleusingen (Bavaria). He claimed to have been a rabbi at...
CHUETAS – Names given to the descendants of the secret Jews in Majorca, who at heart were still faithful to Judaism, but who, in order to induce the belief that they were good Christians, publicly ate pork ("chuya," diminutive "chueta");...
COEN, JACOB – Eldest son of Abraham Coen, and receiver-general ("contador mayor") of Count Maurice of Nassau, Stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, 1584-1625. Although the Jews of Holland did not possess rights of...
COEN, JAN PIETERSZOON – Governor-general of Java, and founder of the Dutch colonial system; born at Hoorn, Holland, Jan. 8, 1587; died in 1629. He gained his early commercial experience with the firm of Piscatori in Rome, went to India on a commercial...
CONSISTORY – An ecclesiastical court; in Jewish usage, a body governing the Jewish congregations of a province or of a country; also the district administered by the consistory. The term was originally, and still is, applied in the Roman...
COURT JEWS – Position and Duties. Court Jews, called also court factors, and court or chamber agents, played a part at the courts of the Austrian emperors and the German princes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and at the...
COUSSERI (COUSSER, V04p317001.jpg) – Jewish family of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; lived in Riva di Trento and neighboring towns of northern Italy. The epitaph on the tomb of Meshullam Cousseri (died July 20, 1541) indicates Riva di Trento as the original...
COUTINHO, FERNANDO – Defender of the Jews, councilor of the supreme court, and afterward Bishop of Silves, in the reigns of Manuel and João III. of Portugal. When, in Feb., 1497, Manuel agitated the question of compulsory baptism of the Jews,...