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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
ELKOSHITE – Obscure ethnic or patronymic name of the prophet Nahum (Nahum i. 1). According to Jerome, Elkosh, the birthplace of the prophet, was the name of a village in Galilee; according to others, of a village to the east of the Jordan....
ELNATHAN – 1. An inhabitant of Jerusalem, and the maternal grandfather of Jehoiachin (II Kings xxiv. 8), probably identical with the son of Achbor, who was sent to conduct the offending prophet Urijah back from Egypt, and who entreated...
ELOHIST – Assumed author of those parts of the Hexateuch characterized by the use of the Hebrew word "Elohim" (= "God"). The term is employed by the critical school to designate one (or two) of the component parts of the Hexateuch. Jean...
ELTEKEH – One of the towns allotted to Dan, mentioned twice in Joshua— (xix. 44) and (xxi. 23). Eltekeh with its suburbs was given as a residence to the Kohathite Levites. This town, called in Assyrian "Al-ta-ḳu-u," was destroyed by...
ELYMAIS – Generally denoting the Persian province of Elam ( ). It occurs in two places (I Macc. vi. 1; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 9, § 1) as the name of a rich city besieged by Antiochus Epiphanes. But the other historians who relate this...
EMADABUN – A Levite, and one of the overseers at the restoration of the Temple (I Esd. v. 58). Probably a mere doublet of "Eliadun," the name is omitted in the Vulgate and in the parallel passage (Ezra iii. 9).E. G. H. E. I. N....
EMBROIDERY – Ornamental needlework on cloth, more frequently on linen, often executed in variegated colors and designs. Among the Egyptians and Assyro-Babylonians this art was highly developed, and Biblical texts make mention of the fact....
EMMAUS – Name of three places in Palestine. 1. A town, or place, memorable for the defeat of Gorgias by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. iii. 40), situated in southern Judea, 22 miles, or 176 stadia, from Jerusalem. Its inhabitants were sold as...
EN-MISHPAT – Another name for Kadesh (Gen. xiv. 7, R. V.), probably Kadeshbarnea, the place where Chedorlaomer with his three companions slew the Amalekites and the Amorites.E. G. H. M. Sel.
ENDOR – Town in the territory of Issachar, allotted to Manasseh (Josh. xvii. 11). It is identified with the modern Endur, on the northern decline of little Mt. Hermon (Nabi Daḥi), a hamlet now abandoned, but which had in Roman days a...
ENDOR, THE WITCH OF – Apparition of Samuel. —Biblical Data: A necromancer consulted by Saul in his extremity when forsaken by Yhwh, and whose ordinary oracles (dreams, urim, and prophets) had failed him. The story is found in I Sam. xxviii. 4-25....
ENGEDI – A town in the wilderness of Judah (Josh. xv. 62), on the western shore of the Dead Sea (Ezek. xlvii. 10). It was the hiding-place of David when he fled from Saul (I Sam. xxiv. 1, 2). Engedi was celebrated for its vine-yards...
ENGRAVING AND ENGRAVERS – Biblical Data: Engraving is the act and art of cutting letters, figures, and the like, on stone, wood, or metal. The account of the equipment of the high priest (Ex. xxviii., xxxix.) evidences that this art had been developed to...
ENOCH – 1. Son of Cain (Gen. iv. 17). A city was named after him.2. Biblical Data: Name of the seventh progenitor of the race in the "book of the generations of Adam"; he was the son of Jared and the father of Methuselah (Gen. v.). He...
ENOCH – 1. Son of Cain (Gen. iv. 17). A city was named after him.2. Biblical Data: Name of the seventh progenitor of the race in the "book of the generations of Adam"; he was the son of Jared and the father of Methuselah (Gen. v.). He...
ENOCH – 1. Son of Cain (Gen. iv. 17). A city was named after him.2. Biblical Data: Name of the seventh progenitor of the race in the "book of the generations of Adam"; he was the son of Jared and the father of Methuselah (Gen. v.). He...
ENOS – Son of Seth, Adam's third son. In his time men began to call upon Yhwh (Gen. iv. 26). At the age of ninety he begat Cainan, and he died at the age of 900 years (Gen. v. 9-11; I Chron. i. 1). The name doubtless means "man," as it...
EPHOD – Biblical Data: In the Old Testament this word has two meanings; in one group of passages it signifies a garment; in another, very probably an image. In the former the ephod is referred to in the priestly ordinances as a part of...
EPHRAIM – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Joseph. The name is connected with the root ("to be fruitful": Gen. xli. 52). He was the younger of the two sons born to Joseph before the famine, Manasseh being the elder (Gen. xli. 51). Nevertheless,...
EPHRAIM – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Joseph. The name is connected with the root ("to be fruitful": Gen. xli. 52). He was the younger of the two sons born to Joseph before the famine, Manasseh being the elder (Gen. xli. 51). Nevertheless,...
EPHRAIM, MOUNTAIN OF – The northern part of the mountain range west of the Jordan, extending from Beer-sheba to the great plain of Esdraelon. Its southern boundary is not expressly indicated in the Old Testament, and probably never constituted a...
EPHRATH – 1. Wife of Caleb (son of Hezron) and mother of Hur (I Chron. ii. 19, 50; iv. 4). 2. Another name for Bethlehem (Gen. xxxv. 19, xlviii. 7; Ruth i. 2, iv. 11; Ps. cxxxii. 6; Micah v. 1). The name "Ephratah" occurs once (I Chron....
EPHRON – 1. Son of Zohar the Hittite; possessor of a field called "Machpelah," which he sold to Abraham for 400 shekels (Gen. xxiii. 8, xxv. 9, xlix. 29). The Talmudists place Ephron's conduct in a poor light, alleging that after having...
ER – 1. First son of Judah by Shuah the Canaanite (Gen. xxxviii. 3; Num. xxvi. 19). He died soon after marrying Tamar, because he "was wicked in the sight of the Lord" (Gen. xxxviii. 7). What his sin was is explained in Bereshit R....
ERECH – The second of the four Babylonian cities founded, according to Gen. x. 10, by Nimrod.The site of the city is now known as "Warka," on the left bank of the Euphrates, about half-way between Hilla and Korna. The mounds and ruins...