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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
CONSTELLATIONS – Clusters of stars. The number of constellations named in the Biblical writings is small. In view of the extensive astronomical attainments of the Assyro-Babylonians, it is safe to predicate of the Hebrews larger knowledge of the...
COOKERY – Biblical Data: The preparation of the meal was in ancient times a very simple process. The principal articles of diet were bread and milk, to which were added, as supplementary dishes, fruits and vegetables (compare Baking and...
COOKING-UTENSILS – Among the ancient Hebrews cooking was naturally entrusted to the women of the household (compare I Sam. viii. 13), as was also the task of grinding the flour required for daily use, and that of preparing the bread. Even ladies...
CORAL – A genus of polypus known to science as "coralligenous zoophytes"; also the hard structures secreted by these animals. The variety known as the red coral (Corallium rubrum) (Pliny, xxxii. 2, 11, and elsewhere) is found in the...
CORMORANT – The translation given in the Bible (Lev. xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 17) of the Hebrew word . In these passages it is specified as one of the unclean fowls. The A. V. (Isa. xxxiv. 11; Zeph. ii. 14) gives "cormorant" as the translation of...
CORPSE – Need of Burial. A body of a dead human being polluted not only those that touched it, but also the dwelling, its inmates, and all uncovered utensils (Num. xix. 14 et seq.). A person made unclean by a corpse was required to be...
COSMOGONY – Biblical Data: A theory concerning the origin ("begetting") of the world; the mythological or ante-scientific view, as preserved in the traditions, oral or written, and the folk-poetry of primitive and ancient peoples.Curiosity...
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
COUCH – Structure on which to rest or sleep. The Hebrew term , meaning "divan" as well as "bed," is synonymous with (Amos iii. 12) and (II Sam. xvii. 28). In olden times the Jewish bed, a plain wooden frame with feet, and a slightly...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
COZBI – A Midianitish woman, daughter of Zur, the leader of a tribe. She was put to death along with the Israelite Zimri by Phinehas (Num. xxv. 14-18).E. G. H. G. B. L.
CRANE – A rendering, in the A. V., of the Hebrew word or , which in the R. V. is more correctly translated "swallow." "Crane," however, is the proper rendering in the R. V. of the word , as in Isa. xxxviii. 14 and Jer. viii. 7. The...
CREATION – The bringing into existence of the world by the act of God. Most Jewish philosophers find in (Gen. i. 1) creation ex nihilo ( ). The etymological meaning of the verb , however, is "to cut out and put into shape," and thus...
CREATION – The bringing into existence of the world by the act of God. Most Jewish philosophers find in (Gen. i. 1) creation ex nihilo ( ). The etymological meaning of the verb , however, is "to cut out and put into shape," and thus...
CREATURE – A loose rendering in the A. V. of:1. "Nefesh" ("a breathing thing"; Gen. i. 20 et seq., ii. 19, ix. 10 et seq.; Lev. xi. 46).2. "Beri'ah" ("creation"; R. V. better, "a new thing"; Num. xvi. 30).3. "Ḥayyot" ("heavenly animals";...
CREEPING THINGS – A loose expression used in the A. V. as the equivalent of and . ("remes" = creeping—that is, without, or with imperceptible, feet; applies to terrestrial and also to water animals. The R. V. more correctly translates it...
CREMATION – Biblical Data: The act of burning the dead. Cremation was not the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was among other contemporary nations (see J. Grimm, "Kleine Schriften," ii. 226). It was, however, not unknown...
CRESCAS, ḤASDAI BEN ABRAHAM – Religious philosopher; born in Barcelona, Spain, 1340; died 1410. He was of an illustrious and learned family, in "Ḳore ha-Dorot" falsely designated as of the family (the abbreviation of , found at the end of the genealogy in...
CRISPUS – The ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who became a Christian, with all his house, through the preaching of Paul (Acts xviii. 8). In one of his letters to the church at Corinth (I Cor. i. 14), Paul speaks of Crispus as one of...
CROCODILE – This well-known amphibious reptile (Crocodilus vulgaris or niloticus) is not mentioned by a specific Hebrew name in the Bible. There are passages, however, in which allusions to it occur, and which give a faithful description of...
CROWN – Biblical Data: The translation employed for five distinct Hebrew words in the Bible. It renders, first, "zer," a technical term used frequently in the Priestly portions of Exodus for the golden molding with which the Ark (xxv....
CROWN – Biblical Data: The translation employed for five distinct Hebrew words in the Bible. It renders, first, "zer," a technical term used frequently in the Priestly portions of Exodus for the golden molding with which the Ark (xxv....
CRUCIFIXION – The act of putting to death by nailing or binding to a cross. Among the modes of Capital Punishment known to the Jewish penal law, crucifixion is not found; the "hanging" of criminals "on a tree," mentioned in Deut. xxi. 22, was...
CRUELTY – The disposition to inflict pain and to gloat over suffering. Widely prevalent among, if not characteristic of, savages and barbarians, it has influenced their treatment of strangers, enemies, and evildoers. Primitive races,...