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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
DART – A pointed weapon to be thrown by the hand; a javelin or light spear. The English version uses "dart" as an equivalent for five Hebrew words: (1) "Ḥeẓ," which should be rendered "arrow" (compare the Assyrian "uṣṣu" and the...
DATHEMA – The name of a fortress in Gilead to which the Jews fled when hard pressed by Timotheus. There they shut themselves in, prepared for a siege, and sent to Judas Maccabeus for aid (I Macc. v. 9-11). Dathema was one of many places...
DAVID – David Consoles Saul. —Biblical Data: Second King of Israel; according to I Chron. ii. 15, the youngest of the seven sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; or, according to I Sam. xvi. 10 et seq., xvii. 12, the youngest of eight sons....
DAVID – David Consoles Saul. —Biblical Data: Second King of Israel; according to I Chron. ii. 15, the youngest of the seven sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; or, according to I Sam. xvi. 10 et seq., xvii. 12, the youngest of eight sons....
DAVID – David Consoles Saul. —Biblical Data: Second King of Israel; according to I Chron. ii. 15, the youngest of the seven sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite; or, according to I Sam. xvi. 10 et seq., xvii. 12, the youngest of eight sons....
DAY – In the Bible, the season of light (Gen. i. 5), lasting "from dawn [lit. "the rising of the morning"] to the coming forth of the stars" (Neh. iv. 15, 17). The term "day" is used also to denote a period of twenty-four hours (Ex....
DAY OF THE LORD – An essential factor in the prophetic doctrine of divine judgment at the end of time (see Eschatology), generally, though not always, involving both punishment and blessing. It is identical with "that day" ( : Isa. xvii. 7, xxx....
DEAD SEA – Composition of the Water. Lake in southeast Palestine, and one of the curious natural phenomena of the earth. It occupies the lowest part of the great depression which extends from northern Palestine to the Gulf of Akabah. At...
DEBIR – 1. A king of Eglon referred to in Josh. x. 3 et seq. The Septuagint reads Δαβὶν. Debir was one of the five kings who joined Adonizedek, King of Jerusalem, against the city of Gibeon. In the battle which ensued, according to the...
DEBORAH – 1. Rebekah's nurse, who accompanied Jacob, and died on the road to Beth-el. She was buried under a terebinth ("oak" in A. V. and R. V.), on this account named "Allon-bakut" (terebinth of weeping; Gen.xxxv. 8). This tree appears...
DEBORAH – 1. Rebekah's nurse, who accompanied Jacob, and died on the road to Beth-el. She was buried under a terebinth ("oak" in A. V. and R. V.), on this account named "Allon-bakut" (terebinth of weeping; Gen.xxxv. 8). This tree appears...
DEBORAH, THE SONG OF – Name of the triumphal ode found in Judges v. 2-31 and ascribed in the title (Judges v. 1) to Deborah; it celebrates the victory in the plain of Megiddo over Sisera and his army. The song belongs to the earlier poetry of the...
DECALOGUE – A word, derived from the Greek, corresponding to the Biblical ; LXX. οἷ δέκα λόγοι(Ex. xxxiv. 28; Deut. x. 4; compare Josephus, "Ant." iii. 5, § 3) and τὰ δέκα ῥήματα (Deut. xiv. 13); also τὰ δέκα λόγια, in the title of Philo's...
DECALOGUE – A word, derived from the Greek, corresponding to the Biblical ; LXX. οἷ δέκα λόγοι(Ex. xxxiv. 28; Deut. x. 4; compare Josephus, "Ant." iii. 5, § 3) and τὰ δέκα ῥήματα (Deut. xiv. 13); also τὰ δέκα λόγια, in the title of Philo's...
DECALOGUE, THE, IN JEWISH THEOLOGY – The Ten Words are designated by Philo as κεφαλαῖα νόμων ="the heads of the law," the title of the chapter "De Decem Oraculis." The second table Philo, contrary to the usual order, begins with the commandment against adultery,...
DEEP – 1. In contradistinction to "rock," which is used figuratively for "a refuge" (Isa. xxxiii. 16; Ps. xxvii. 5, xl. 2, lxi. 3), the "deep" ("ma'amaḳḳim") is a metaphorical expression for misfortune or sorrow (Ps. lxix.2,15; cxxx....
DEISM – A system of belief which posits God's existence as the cause of all things, and admits His perfection, but rejects Divine revelation and government, proclaiming the all-sufficiency of natural laws. The Socinians, as opposed to...
DELAIAH – 1. A son of Elioenai in the Davidic genealogy (I Chron. iii. 24; A. V. "Dalaiah"). The sons of Delaiah are mentioned in the long post-exilic list of those who returned from captivity under Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 60; Neh. vii. 62)....
DELILAH – A woman of Sorek, loved by Samson (Judges xvi. 4-20). The chief of the Philistines bribed her to discover the source of Samson's great strength. Three times she failed. First, at his own suggestion, she bound him with "seven...
DEMONOLOGY – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: Systematic knowledge concerning demons or evil spirits. Demons (Greek, δαίμονες or δαιμόνια; Hebrew, [Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37] and [Lev. xvii. 7; II Chron. xi. 15; A. V. "devils"; Luther,...
DERCETO – A goddess of the Syrians.1. Derceto is mentioned indirectly in II Macc. xii. 26, where it is related that Judas in his expeditions came ἐπὶ τὸ Καρνίον, καὶ τὸ Ἀταργατεῖον, or ᾈτεργατίον. This latter word designates the sanctuary...
DEUTERONOMY – The fifth book of the Pentateuch, called in Hebrew "Debarim" (Words), from the opening phrase "Eleh ha-debarim."; in Rabbinical Hebrew it is known also as "Mishneh Torah." The English appellation is derived from the name which...
DEW – Biblical Data: Moisture condensed from the atmosphere and gathered in small drops, specially upon the upper surface of plants. In Palestine dew "falls" in cloudless nights during the summer, and refreshes the vegetation, which...
DIAL – Device for displaying the time by means of the shadow of a gnomon or style thrown by the rays of the sun on a graduated disk. It is generally agreed that by the "steps of Ahaz" (II Kings xxi. 9, 10; Isa. xxxviii. 8, Hebr.) some...
DIBLAH – According to the Masorah and Septuagint, which the R. V. follows, "Diblah" is the name of a place mentioned in Ezek. vi. 14. No place of this name corresponding with the requirements of the passage is known. J. D. Michaelis...