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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
EARTHQUAKE – The Hebrew word "ra'ash," as well as its Assyrian and Arabic equivalents designating an earthquake, is indicative of a great noise or tremendous roaring. In Ps. lxxii. 16 the same word is used to describe the gentle rustling of...
EAST – Worshipers of the sun turned toward the east, with their backs to the Holy of Holies (Ezek. viii. 16; comp. Suk. v. 4), whereas the Jews of the Exile prayed toward the Temple (Dan. vi. 11; I Kings viii. 38, 44 et seq.; Ber. iv....
EBAL – 1. A bare mountain 2,900 feet high, north of Sichem, opposite Mt. Gerizim. At the base toward the north are several tombs. The higher part is on the west, and contains the ruins of some massive walls called "Al-Kal'ah"; east of...
EBED-MELECH – Biblical Data: A Cushite officer at the court of King Zedekiah, who interceded in behalf of Jeremiah, and was sent by the king with thirty (Ewald and Duhm, "three") men to draw up the prophet from the pit (A. V. "dungeon") into...
EBER – The eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews; grandson of Arphaxad and great-grandson of Shem; father of Joktan, the ancestor of the Arabs, and of Peleg, among whose progeny, in the fifth generation, was Abram (Gen. x. 22, 25-30; xi....
EBONY – This word is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, namely, Ezek. xxvii. 15, where it is stated that the Arabian merchant people, the Dedanites (see Dodanim), brought horns of ebony to Tyre. The genuine ebony is the wood of...
ED – Name supplied by the English versions for the altar erected by the tribes on the east of the Jordan (Joshua xxii. 34). The name does not appear in the Masoretic text nor in the Septuagint. The Hebrew reads simply, "And the...
EDDINUS – One of the three "holy singers . . . , the sons of Asaph" (I Esd. i. 15), at Josiah's Passover. He alone belonged to the royal suite. The name is a Greek equivalent of "Jeduthun." See the parallel passage—II Chron. xxxv. 15.E....
EDEN, GARDEN OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin. The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (=...
EDEN, GARDEN OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin. The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (=...
EDER, EDAR – 1. A place near Ephrath, i.e., Bethlehem. Jacob, while journeying from Bethlehem to Hebron, encamped "beyond the tower of Eder" ("Migdal-'eder," Gen. xxxv. 21). The name "Migdal-'eder," signifying "tower of the flock," was...
EDREI – Ancient city in the Jordan valley, at present Der'at, southeast of Muzerib. The city is apparently mentioned as "Otara" in Egyptian inscriptions. In the Old Testament Ashtaroth and Edrei are referred to as the capital cities of...
EDUCATION – Biblical and Pre-Talmudical Data: The moral and religious training of the people from childhood up was regarded by the Jews from the very beginning of their history as one of the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord...
EGLAH – Mother of Ithream, David's sixth son (I Chron. iii. 3). The expression "wife of David" (II Sam. iii. 5) probably means the favorite wife of David. According to the Targum, Eglah is identical with Michal, the daughter of Saul,...
EGLATH-SHELISHIYAH – A place mentioned in ancient oracles against Moab (Isa. xv. 5, R. V.; Jer. xlviii. 34, R. V.), together with Zoar, Luhith, and Horonaim. It has been identified with the Aγαλλα mentioned by Josephus("Ant." xiv. 1, § 4) in...
EGYPT – Ancient and Biblical: The valley of the Nile north of the first cataract, having an area of 9,000-12,000 square miles of arable ground. Almost rainless, the country depends upon the inundations of the Nile and artificial...
EKRON – One of the five cities belonging to the Philistines (Josh. xiii. 3), situated in the maritime plain. It is mentioned in connection with the Ark in I Sam. v. 10, vi. 1-8. Ekron was noted for its sanctuary of Baal-zebub (II Kings...
EL 'ELYON – Biblical Data: The most high God (Gen. xix. 18-20, 22, A. V.; R. V. "God most high"), as whose priest Melchizedek blesses Abraham (compare "Urusalem," in the El-Amarna tablets; Schrader, "K. B." iv. 180, 25 et seq.; 183, 14;...
ELADAH – Son of Tahath and father of Tahath, found in the genealogical list of Ephraim in I Chron. vii. 20, but not mentioned in the list in Num. xxvi. He met his death in a raid upon Gath.E. G. H. G. B. L.
ELAH, THE VALLEY OF – Scene of the combat between David and Goliath (I Sam. xvii. 2, xxi. 9). It is identified with the fertile Wadi al-Sanṭ, rich in oaks, terebinths, and acacias. The older as well as the newer name refers to the trees growing in...
ELAM – The great plain north of the Persian Gulf and east of the lower Tigris and the mountainous districts by which it is enclosed on the east and north. It is the "Elamtu" of the Babylonians and Assyrians and the "Elymais" of the...
ELATH – Idumean port at the northern end of the Ælanitic Gulf, the later Aila. According to the Old Testament, the name of the place is also Elparan. In Deut. ii. 8 it is mentioned with Eziongeber (comp. I Kings ix. 26; II Chron. viii....
ELDAD AND MEDAD – Two men who prophesied in the camp during the wanderings in the wilderness (Num. xi. 26-29). According to an old rabbinical tradition, they predicted the war with Gog and Magog. "The king from the land of Magog will unite all...
ELEAD – A descendant of Ephraim, found in the genealogical list in I Chron. vii. 21. He joined a party of raiders to take away the flocks of Gath, and was killed by the Gittites. The name does not appear in the genealogical list in...
ELEALAH – Town of the Moabite plateau, conquered by Gad and Reuben and rebuilt by the latter (Num. xxx ii. 3, 37). It is mentioned, together with the town of Heshbon, in the prophecies concerning Moab (Isa. xvi. 9). Elealah was still...