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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
CRISPIN, ISAAC IBN – Spanish moralist and poet; lived at the beginning of the twelfth century. Judah al-Ḥarizi praises him among the renowned poets of the twelfth century; and, judging from the title ("The Great Prince"), which he prefixes to...
CRONEBURG, BENJAMIN BEN SOLOMON – German publicist; lived at Neuwied, Prussia, in the eighteenth century. In 1758 he founded at Neuwied the Jewish periodical "Der Grosse Schauplatz" (The Great Stage), printed in German.Bibliography: Karpeles, Gesch. der...
CRUSADES, THE – First Crusade: 1096. Expeditions from western Europe to recover Jerusalem and the holy sepulcher from the control of the infidel. The undisciplined mobs accompanying the first three Crusades attacked the Jews in Germany, France,...
CRYPTO-JEWS – Jews professing another religion but practising Jewish rites in secret in their own homes. There was some tendency toward this even in early days, as is shown by the attempts of certain Jews to avoid being taken for such (see...
CUSA, NICOLAUS DE – Philosopher and theologian; born in Cusa, or Kues, on the Moselle, 1401; died in Todi, Umbria, 1464. He was Bishop and Cardinal of Brixan (Tyrol) at his death. As theologian he was known for his liberal views and wide mental...
CUENCA – City in New Castile, Spain, which, after its conquest by Alfonso VII., possessed Jewish inhabitants. In the "fuero," or charter, granted to the city about 1189, the king secured to the Jews full personal protection, together...
CUMANUS, VENTIDIUS – Roman procurator in Judea (48-52). According to Tacitus ("Annales," xii. 54), he divided the procuratorship with Felix; the latter being at the head of Samaria, the former of Galilee. Such a division is unknown to Josephus, and,...
CUNEO – Capital of the Italian province of the same name. According to local traditions, a Jewish community, founded probably after the expulsion of the Jews from France (1381), existed there in the fourteenth century. It seems to have...
CURIEL – A wealthy Marano family which settled in the Netherlands and at Hamburg about the sixteenth century. They intermarried largely with the Da Costa family. In 1682 great excitement was caused at Antwerp by the attempt of the rector...
CURIEL, JACOB – Resident of the Portuguese court at Hamburg about the middle of the seventeenth century; died there in 1665. He had lived previously at Amsterdam, where he had taken an important part in the reunion, effected in April, 1639, of...
CUZZERI, SEMA – Italian poet; resident at Padua. He witnessed the terrible attack on the ghetto of Padua on Aug. 20, 1684. He portrays the sorrows of that time in an Italian poem entitled "L'Innocenza Illesa," and narrates the horrible...
CYPROS – Wife of King Agrippa I., daughter of Phasaelus and Salampsio, and granddaughter of Herod I. She had three daughters, Berenice, Mariamne, and Drusilla; and two sons, Agrippa and Drusus, the latter dying in childhood (Josephus,...
CYPROS – A woman of noble Arabian family; married about 75 B.C. the Jewish governor Antipater, to whom she bore five children, Phasaelus, Herod (afterward king), Josephus, Pheroras, and Salome (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 7, § 3; idem, "B. J."...
CYPRUS – In Hasmonean Times. The large island in the easternmost basin of the Mediterranean, probably deriving its name from the Cyprus flower (Κύπρος), the Hebrew appellation of which is . Josephus states ("Ant." i. 6, § 1) that the...
CYPRUS – In Hasmonean Times. The large island in the easternmost basin of the Mediterranean, probably deriving its name from the Cyprus flower (Κύπρος), the Hebrew appellation of which is . Josephus states ("Ant." i. 6, § 1) that the...
CYRENE – A large and important city in Cyrenaica, the district of Upper Libya on the north coast of Africa, west of Egypt. Cyrene was one of the five large cities that gave to this region the name of "Pentapolis" (compare Josephus, "B....
CYRUS – The founder of the Persian empire. The name is also found in India as "Kurus," and is evidently Aryan. The translation "sun" given by Ctesias (in Müller's edition of Didot's "Herodotus," fragm. 29, 49) is due to a confusion with...
CZARNIKAU – Town in the district of Bromberg, province of Posen, Germany. The Jewish community of this town probably dates back to the beginning of the seventeenth century, at which time, according to tradition, the Polish prince Sapieha...
DACOSTA, ISAAC-FRANCIS – Musician and composer; born at Bordeaux Jan. 17, 1778; died there Nov. 29, 1864. He was a pupil of the Musical Conservatory in 1798. Later, while first cornet at the opera in Paris, he was vice-leader of the Musique des Gardes...
DAGESH – The diacritical point placed in the center of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet to indicate either their intensified (doubled) pronunciation, or, in the case of the letters (b, g, d, k, p, t), their hard (unaspirated)...
DAGESH – The diacritical point placed in the center of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet to indicate either their intensified (doubled) pronunciation, or, in the case of the letters (b, g, d, k, p, t), their hard (unaspirated)...
DAGGATUN – Nomad tribe of Jewish origin living in the neighborhood of Tementit, in the oasis of Tuat in the Moroccan Sahara. An account of the Daggatun was first given by R. Mordecai Abi Sarur of Akka (Morocco), who in 1857 journeyed...
DAGOBERT – King of France (602-638). In order to emulate the religious zeal of Heraclius and Sisebut, the rulers of the Byzantine and West-Gothic empires, who were persecuting the Jews,Dagobert decreed, about 629, that the Jews who were...
DALET (ר) – Fourth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name is evidently connected with "delet," meaning "door," and was borrowed from the shape of the letter in the Phenician (ancient Hebrew) script (see Alphabet). It corresponds to the...
DAMASCUS – An ancient city of Asia Minor, situated at the foot of the Anti-Lebanon, 180 miles south by west of Aleppo; now the capital of the vilayet of Syria. In the Old Testament it is called (Dammeseḳ), or (Darmeseḳ, I Chron. xviii. 5...