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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
DAVID BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN – Prominent rabbinical scholar; lived at Avignon in the thirteenth century. Aaron b. Jacob ha-Kohen of Narbonne, his grandson, who went to Majorca in 1306, names him in his "Orḥot Ḥayyim" as the teacher of R. Eliezer ben Immanuel...
DAVID BEN JUDAH – Exilarch of Babylonia 820-834; successor to Iskawi II. at a time when this dignity was on the decline. His appointment was contested, by a party which favored Daniel, a Karaite according to Bar Hebræus. The calif Al-Ma'mun, to...
DAVID LAḤNI BEN ELIEZER – Rabbi at Karasu-Bazar, in the Crimea, at the end of the seventeenth century. He was a native of Poland, whence his Tatar surname "Laḥni" (from "Liaḥ" = Poland). Abraham Firkowich claimed to have had in his possession a...
DAVID (ABU SULAIMAN) IBN MERWAN AL-MUḲAMMAṢ AL-RAḲḲI – Philosopher and controversialist; native of Rakka, Mesopotamia, whence his surname; flourished in the ninth and tenth centuries. Harkavy derives his byname from the Arabic "ḳammaṣ" (to leap), interpreting it as referring to his...
DAVID (ABU SULAIMAN) IBN MERWAN AL-MUḲAMMAṢ AL-RAḲḲI – Philosopher and controversialist; native of Rakka, Mesopotamia, whence his surname; flourished in the ninth and tenth centuries. Harkavy derives his byname from the Arabic "ḳammaṣ" (to leap), interpreting it as referring to his...
DAVID OF MILHAU – French liturgical poet; lived at L'Isle, France, about 1764. In Hebrew he was called (Zunz reads ). MS. No. 148 Montefiore Library (= Halberstamm. No. 266) contains a responsum of David of Milhau.Bibliography:Gross, Gallia...
DAVID RAPHAEL BEN ABRAHAM POLIDO – Satirist; flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His name, and the factthat his work was printed in Leghorn, suggest that he was an Italian; but Somerhausen reads (Polonya [?]) instead of ; whereas...
DAVID BEN ZAKKAI – Exilarch; known in Jewish history especially for his controversy with Saadia; died in 940. He was a relative of the prince of the Exile, 'Uḳba, who had been deposed from office and banished, and was his successor in the...
DECAPOLIS, THE – Name of a district of Palestine that included a number of autonomous cities. According to Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," v. 18, 74) these ten cities were Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, Dion, Pella,...
DAVILA, DIEGO ARIAS – Minister and confidant of King Henry IV. of Castile; born of Jewish. parents in Segovia; died in 1466. He, together with his family, embraced the Christian faith when Vincent Ferrer was preaching special sermons with a view to...
DAVIN, SOLOMON BEN DAVID, OF RODEZ – Astronomer; lived in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was a disciple of Immanuel of Tarascon (France). He translated from the Latin into Hebrew, under the title "Sefer Mishpeṭe ha-Kokabim," the astronomical and...
DAX – Town in the department of Landes, France, with a population of 11,000. The number of Jews residing there is not sufficient to form a congregation. The Conseil d'Etat, Nov. 20, 1684, decreed the expulsion of the Jews from Dax,...
DECKINGEN, JUDAH BEN BENJAMIN – German lexicographer of the sixteenth century. He was the pupil of Isaac of Ahrweiler, and lived as tutor at Wendersheim (1555), Rüsselheim, and other places of southern Germany. In 1556 he compiled a Hebrew-German glossary of...
DEBASH, ISAIAH BEN SAMUEL – Provençal poet of the second half of the thirteenth century. Renan supposes that the surname "Debash" (honey) is the Hebrew translation of the Provençal name "Miles," a surname frequently borne by the Jews of Provence. Debash is...
DEBORAH – A Jewish weekly in the German language, founded in 1855 by Isaac M. Wise and Max Lilienthal in Cincinnati, Ohio, for German immigrants who had not mastered English. It was planned as a German supplement to the American...
DEFENSE – Means of protection from assault. In Biblical times outlying farms were protected from bands of marauders by watch-towers ("migdal"; see Tower). When the collection of houses in a village became large enough to need protection,...
DEL BENE, DAVID – Italian rabbi; born at Mantua in the latter half of the sixteenth century; died at Ferrara in the beginning of the seventeenth century. Possessed of great oratorical talent and having received a thorough secular education, he...
DELGADO, GONÇALO – Portuguese Marano of the sixteenth century, and son of Juan Pinto Delgado; born at Tavira, where he occupied the position of an "escrivão dos orfãos" (secretary of an orphanage). He is the author of "Poema Composto de que Era, o...
DELGADO, JUAN (MOSES) PINTO – Marano poet; born at Tavira, Portugal, about 1530; died in 1591. Going to Spain in his youth, he studied the humanities at Salamanca, where he formed a friendship with the poet Luis de Leon. He was talented in many ways, and was...
DELITZSCH, FRANZ – Christian Hebraist; born at Leipsic Feb. 23, 1813; died there March 4, 1890. He was not of Jewish descent; although, owing to his rabbinical learning and his sympathy with the Jewish people, and from a misunderstanding of his...
DELMEDIGO, ELIJAH CRETENSIS BEN MOSES ABBA – Cretan philosopher and physician; born in Candia in 1460; died there March, 1497 (Grätz, "Geschichte," 3d ed., viii. 244, note). Elijah was instructed by his father in Bible and Talmud, and when scarcely more than a child he...
DELMEDIGO, JOSEPH SOLOMON – Philosopher and physician; born at Candia June 16, 1591; died at Prague Oct. 16, 1655; son of Elijah, rabbi of Candia. Joseph received a thorough Jewish as well as secular education. At the University of Padua, which he entered...
DEMETRIUS – Son-in-law of King Agrippa I. When Mariamne II., daughter of Agrippa I. and sister of Agrippa II., had put away Archelaus, the son of Chelcias, she married Demetrius, who was by birth and wealth among the foremost Jews of...
DEMETRIUS I. SOTER – King of Syria 162-150 B.C.; son of Seleucus IV. Philopator. He was sent by his father as a hostage to Rome in place of Antiochus Epiphanes, after whose death he demanded in vain of the Senate that he be acknowledged as his...
DEMETRIUS II. NICATOR – King of Syria; son of Demetrius Soter. He was sent to Rome by his father as hostage for his fidelity. It was intended that he should work there against Alexander Balas, whose cause was promoted by Heraclides. He could achieve...