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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
DEMETRIUS III. EUCERUS – King of Syria; son of Antiochus Grypus. He was pretender to the throne of Antiochus X., whom he supplanted in 95 B.C. after a severe struggle. He divided the authority with his brother Philip, keeping to himself apparently...
DEMONOLOGY – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: Systematic knowledge concerning demons or evil spirits. Demons (Greek, δαίμονες or δαιμόνια; Hebrew, [Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37] and [Lev. xvii. 7; II Chron. xi. 15; A. V. "devils"; Luther,...
DEMONOLOGY – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: Systematic knowledge concerning demons or evil spirits. Demons (Greek, δαίμονες or δαιμόνια; Hebrew, [Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37] and [Lev. xvii. 7; II Chron. xi. 15; A. V. "devils"; Luther,...
DEMOPHON – Apparently an officer under Lysias' command; he was Syrian general in Palestine about 164 B.C., and as such harried the Jewish population, who were already worn out because of their many wars, and were then engaged in...
DEN – Russian Jewish weekly; published at Odessa (1869-71) by A. Zederbaum and I. Goldenblum, and edited by S. Ornstein. Among its collaborators were M. Morgulis, I. G. Orshanski, and L. Levanda.G. M. R.
DENIS (DIONIS), ALBERTUS – One of the first members of the Portuguese community in Hamburg. On May 31, 1611, he with two others signed the agreement which assured to the community its cemetery in Altona. In 1612 he was with othersformally admitted to the...
DESSAU – Moses Wulff. Chief town of the duchy of Anhalt, North Germany, on the left bank of the Mulde. The settlement of Jews here dates from 1621. The introduction of debased coins had ruined the finances of the duchy, and Duke Johann...
DHU NUWAS, ZUR'AH YUSUF IBN TUBAN AS'AD ABI KARIB – Name and Religion. Jewish King of Yemen, 515-525. According to the Arabian historians the name "Dhu Nuwas" was given him on account of his curly hair (Ibn Khaldun, "Prolegomena," p. 311; Ḥamzah of Ispahan, "Annals," i. 133). Von...
DHU NUWAS, ZUR'AH YUSUF IBN TUBAN AS'AD ABI KARIB – Name and Religion. Jewish King of Yemen, 515-525. According to the Arabian historians the name "Dhu Nuwas" was given him on account of his curly hair (Ibn Khaldun, "Prolegomena," p. 311; Ḥamzah of Ispahan, "Annals," i. 133). Von...
DIA, EL – Title of a Jewish periodical written in Judæo-Spanish and printed in rabbinical characters. It was published at Philippopolis, Bulgaria, from June, 1897 until 1900; in 1903 its publication was begun again at Sofia.G. M....
DIASPORA – The Jews in their dispersion through the Greco-Roman world. In the present article the Jewish race is considered in its relations to the Hellenic and the Roman peoples. The geographical distribution of the race; the civil...
DIAZ (DIAS) DE SORIA – A family of Bordeaux which derived its name from the Spanish town Soria. There is nothing to definitely warrant the belief, held by Féret, that this family went to France as early as 1492. It is found for the first time, with...
DICTIONARIES, BIBLE – Calmet's Dictionary. Collections of articles in alphabetical order treating of the various biographical, archeological, geographical, and other subjects of the Bible. Up to within quite recent times Jews have taken very little...
DICTIONARIES, HEBREW – The earliest known work giving a lexical survey of part of the Hebrew language, with comments, is the dictionary of Biblical proper names (Ερμενεία Εβραικῶν ΟΝομάτων) ascribed to Philo of Alexandria, and in any case the work of...
DIEGO DE VALENCIA – Spanish troubadour of the fifteenth century; born of Jewish parentage at Valencia de Don Juan, in the kingdom of Leon. After his conversion to Christianity he became a Franciscan monk; and receiving the degree of doctor of...
DIENA (DAYYENA), AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON – Rabbi at Sabbionetta; died 1536. He was a disciple of Nathaniel Trabotto, and is mentioned with respect by R. Meïr Katzenellenbogen. Azulai claims to have seen two volumes of his responsa—perhaps those referred to in "Magazin,"...
DIENESOHN, JACOB – Yiddish novelist; born in Zagory (Zagaren), Russia, in 1859. He is one of the most popular Yiddish novelists of the latter half of the nineteenth century. He began to write in 1877, when he published a story called "Ha-Ne'ehabim...
DIESSENHOFEN – City in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, connected by a bridge with the village of Gailingen in Baden. It attracted the Jews in early times by its favorable position. In 1348 the Jews here were accused of having poisoned the wells:...
GOMEZ DE SOSA (SOSSA), ABRAHAM – Spanish physician; died at an advanced age Elul 21 (=Sept. 10), 1667. He was physician in ordinary to the infante Ferdinand (son of Philip III. of Spain), governor of the Netherlands. His epitaph is recorded in D. H. de Castro's...
DIGNE – Capital of the department of Basses-Alpes, France. There was a Jewish community here as early as the thirteenth century. Salve, a Jew of Digne, with Rotelus of Olobrega (Israel of Valabrègue) and Bonfils of Beaucaire, was one of...
DIJON – Chief town of the department of Côte-d'Or, France. Jews have been settled here from time immemorial. They occupied two special quarters: the first and most important comprised the whole Rue Buffon, a part of which bore, until...
DINIZ – King of Portugal (1279-1325), and styled "the father of his country"; one of the most tolerant rulers of his time, and well disposed toward the Jews. He took care that the judges did not encroach on their rights, and did not...
DIOCLETIAN – Roman emperor (285-305). Although he was the son of Dalmatian slaves (Eutropius, ix. 19), he rose to the highest honors by virtue of his personal qualities. The rabbinical sources have amplified the account of his lowly origin...
DIODATUS – Ruler of Syria 141-138 B.C.; born at Kasiana near Apamea. Originally an officer in the army of Alexander Balas, he opposed the claims of Demetrius II., putting on the throne Antiochus, the young son of Alexander, who was still a...
DIOGO, JUSTINIANO ALVARES DA ANNUNCIAÇÃO – Archbishop of Cranganor; born at Lisbon in 1654; died at Evora Oct. 28, 1713. Doctor of theology and canon in ordinary, he was charged with a special mission at Rome. Dom Pedro II. rewarded his services by appointing him...