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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
DUAL – Form of a noun or verb indicating its application to two persons or things. Arabic is the only Semitic language that has the dual form for the verb as well as for the noun; in Syriac only a few traces of the dual have been...
DUDERSTADT – A city in Eichsfelde, province of Hanover. Jews have lived there as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, as appears from the renewal of the privileges for that town by Duke Henry II. on Nov. 17, 1314. They enjoyed...
DUNASH IBN TAMIM – Scholar of the tenth century and pioneer of scientific study among Arabic-speaking Jews. His Arabic name was "Abu Sahl"; his surname, according to an isolated statement of Moses ibn Ezra, was "Al-Shafalgi," perhaps after his...
DURAN – A widely scattered family, originally from Provence, not from Oran ("d'Oran"), as some scholars think. A "Mosse Duram" is mentioned in a list of Tarascon Jews, 1350-1487 ("Rev. Etudes Juives," xxxix. 268). The Durans went first...
EBER BEN PETHAHIAH – Moravian scholar; lived in Ungarisch-Brod at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Steinschneider indicates the possibility of the name being merely a pseudonym. It appears on the title-page of "Mar'eh ha-Ketab we-Rashe...
EBERLEN, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH – German mathematician; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the first half of the sixteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Sefer ha-Ẓifar," containing mathematical problems with solutions, which was finished Tuesday,...
ECIJA – Spanish city in the province of Seville. A charge of ritual murder occurred in the time of the "great king" Alfonso (Alfonso X., or Alfonso XI.). The Jew charged with the crime was imprisoned on the eve of the Passover. At the...
EDESSA – The present Urfa, a city in the vilayet of Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey. No mention of the name is found in Jewish writings, except, perhaps, in Yoma 10a ( or ; Neubauer, "G. T." p. 346; but explained by Jastrow, s.v., as Warka in...
EGYPT – Ancient and Biblical: The valley of the Nile north of the first cataract, having an area of 9,000-12,000 square miles of arable ground. Almost rainless, the country depends upon the inundations of the Nile and artificial...
EDOX, IDUMEA – Biblical Data. Edom is the name which was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac, on the day he sold his birthright to Jacob for a mess of pottage, the reddish color of which gives it its name—"Adom" (Gen. xxv. 30). The...
EDUCATION – Biblical and Pre-Talmudical Data: The moral and religious training of the people from childhood up was regarded by the Jews from the very beginning of their history as one of the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord...
EDUCATORE ISRAELITA – Monthly periodical founded by Giuseppe Levi, and published by him, in conjunction with Esdra Pontremoli, at Vercelli (1853-74). It advocated moderate Jewish reform, to be brought about by the cooperation of all communities....
EGER – Bohemian town, on the right bank of the River Eger. The population of Eger in 1890 was 17,148, including 508 Jews. The oldest document mentioning the Jews is dated March 12, 1314, and refuses them permission to inhabit a new...
ELCHE – City in the former kingdom of Valencia. When Don Jaime I. of Aragon took the city from the Moors, he gave houses and land to the Jews he found there, as he did to the other Jews of Valencia, and appointed a special street for...
ELDAD BEN MAHLI HA-DANI – Merchant and traveler of the ninth century. He professed to have been a citizen of an independent Jewish state in eastern Africa, inhabited by the tribes of Dan (hence his name, "ha-Dani" = "the Danite"), Asher, Gad, and...
ELEAZAR – 1. High priest; third son of Aaron. After his two elder brothers, Nadab and Abihu, had suffered death for offering strange fire before the Lord, Eleazar became his father's chief assistant, with the title "prince of the princes...
ELEAZAR, ABRAHAM – Fictitious author of an ancient work on alchemy published in Leipsic in 1760, and bearing the title "R. Abrahami Eleazaris Uraltes Chymisches Werk." The real author seems to have been Julius Gervasius of Schwarzburg, whose name...
ELEAZAR B. DINAI – Leader of the Zealots (35-60, C.E.). When the Jews of Peræea had boundary disputes with the pagan population of Philadelphia, the procurator Fadus killed Annibas, one of the three leaders, and banished the other two, Amram and...
ELEAZAR B. JAIR – Leader of the Sicarii, the remnant of whom, driven from Jerusalem about 70 by Eleazar b. Ananias, retired to Masada. Eleazar was a descendant of Judah, the founder of the party of Zealots. Besieged by the Romans, Eleazar...
ELEAZAR BEN ZIṬA ABU AL-SARI – Karaite Bible exegete; lived probably in Egypt in the tenth century. He supported the rigid, ascetic, and Sadducean doctrines advocated by Anan and other Karaites, though at times he opposed Anan's teaching.It is not at all...
ELHANAN BEN ISAAC OF DAMPIERRE – Tosafist and liturgist; martyred in 1184 (Solomon Luria, Responsa, No. 29; see Azriel). He was on his grandmother's side a grand-nephew of R. Jacob Tam. One of his pupils was Judah Sir Leon of Paris. It has been suggested that...
ESTELLA – Capital of a district of the same name in Navarre. Its Jewish community dates as far back as those of Tudela and Pamplona. In 1144 its synagogue was turned over to the bishop by King Garcia Ramirez, and transformed into the...
ELIEZER THE ASTRONOMER – German scholar of the sixteenth century; author of "Ge Ḥizzayon," an astrological compilation fromHebrew, Arabic, and Latin sources (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2066). He quotes Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi, Ibn Ezra,...
ELIEZER BEN FARUḤ – Jewish mathematician, said by certain Mohammedan authors to have first established the Jewish calendar. He is mentioned by Al-Biruni (972-1048) in his "Chronology of Ancient Nations"; and this account is repeated, almost word...
ELIEZER (ELEAZAR) BEN IMMANUEL OF TARASCON – Member of a family of scholars established in that city since the first half of the thirteenth century. Although he wrote several works, only his correspondence with R. Samuel of Agde (France) is now extant. He was the teacher...