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Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., LL.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
BREASTPLATE OF THE HIGH PRIEST – Biblical Data: A species of pouch, adorned with precious stones, worn by the high priest on his breast when he presented in the Holy Place the names of the children of Israel. The etymological significance of the Hebrew word is...
BRUTISH – A term applied by the Biblical writers to men whose disposition or spirit was like that of beasts. It is used in close conjunction with "foolish" (Jer. x. 8; Ps. xlix. 10, xciv. 8), and, as indicated in the Hebrew, may mean...
CLAY – A word used in the Old Testament to denote several kinds of soil, including the clays of the East as well as the loam of the Nile valley. Clay, in its technical sense, is "a mixture of decomposed minerals of various kinds....
CORMORANT – The translation given in the Bible (Lev. xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 17) of the Hebrew word . In these passages it is specified as one of the unclean fowls. The A. V. (Isa. xxxiv. 11; Zeph. ii. 14) gives "cormorant" as the translation of...
CRANE – A rendering, in the A. V., of the Hebrew word or , which in the R. V. is more correctly translated "swallow." "Crane," however, is the proper rendering in the R. V. of the word , as in Isa. xxxviii. 14 and Jer. viii. 7. The...
CRISPUS – The ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who became a Christian, with all his house, through the preaching of Paul (Acts xviii. 8). In one of his letters to the church at Corinth (I Cor. i. 14), Paul speaks of Crispus as one of...
CUCUMBER – The rendering of the Hebrew (Num. xi. 5). There are at least two kinds of cucumbers in Palestine (Hasselquist, Groser, Post, etc.); viz., Cucumis sativus and C. chate. The former is the common green cucumber well known in the...
DODO – 1. The father of Eleazar, "one of the three mighty men with David, when they defiedthe Philistines that were there gathered together to battle" (II Sam. xxiii. 9; R. V. "Dodai"). I Chron. xi. 12 reads "Dodo, the Ahohite," while...
FREE-WILL OFFERING – A term applied to gifts presented out of the benevolence or religious impulse of heart of the giver, and not in fulfilment of any obligation, promise, or vow. It is used as the term for the contributions of Israel to the...
GAULONITIS – Section of country east of the Jordan and of the Sea of Galilee; so called particularly in the first century C.E. It is frequently mentioned by Josephus as a part of the tetrarchy of Philip, in the same general region as...
HOSHEA – Biblical Data: Last of the nineteen kings of Israel; son of Elah (II Kings xv. 30). Hoshea secured the throne through a conspiracy in which he was the leader, and which resulted in the assassination of Pekah, "in the twelfth...
ICHABOD – Son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. Born after the death in battle of his father and the tragic death of his grandfather, he was named "Ichabod" ( = particle of negation; = "glory") by his dying mother, who exclaimed at the...
ISSACHAR, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: A tribe of Israel, descended from Issachar. The numbers accredited to Issachar are: 54,400 in Num. i. 29; 64,300 in Num. xxvi. 25; and 145,600 in I Chron. vii. 1-5. The territory occupied by the tribe was the...
JABIN – 1. King of Hazor; head of one of the great confederations which faced Joshua in his conquest of Canaan (Josh. xi.). He summoned his allies from every side, including the Amorites, Hittites, and many petty kingdoms. By "the...
JAEL, THE KENITE WOMAN – Wife of Heber, the Kenite (Judges iv. 17). Jabin, the king of Canaan, "that reigned in Hazor," had tyrannized over Israel for twenty years. Deborah and Barak aroused the northern tribes and assembled them at Mount Tabor, to...
JEDIDAH – Mother of Josiah, King of Judah; daughter of Adaiah. of Boscath, and wife of Amon (II Kings xxi. 26, xxii. 1). The name means "beloved."E. G. H. I. M. P.
JEDUTHUN – The name of one of the three great orders or gilds of Temple singers, in charge of the music of the Temple from David's day down into post-exilic times. In I Chron. xvi. 41, 42 Jeduthun is mentioned along with Heman as one of...
JEHOAHAZ – 1. Son of Jehu; second king in the fifth dynasty of northern Israel; reigned 814-797 B.C. During the period of his rule Syria under Hazael and Ben-hadad became particularly aggressive (II Kings xiii. 1-9, 22); Israel's army was...
JEHORAM (JORAM) – 1. King of Israel (852-842 B.C.); son of Ahab and Jezebel; brother and successor of Ahaziah. Like his predecessors, Jehoram worshiped Baal. With Jehoshaphat and the King of Edom, Jehoram attacked Mesha, King of Moab. In the war...
JERUBBAAL – A name given to Gideon by his father, Joash (Judges vi. 32), because the men of the city of Ophrah demanded that he turn over to them Gideon, who had destroyed the altar of Baal. When Joash named him "Jerubbaal," he said, "Let...
JEZEBEL – Daughter of Ethbaal, King of Sidon, and wife of Ahab, second king of the fourth dynasty of Israel, founded by Omri (I Kings xvi. 31). This marriage was the culmination of the friendly relations existing between Israel and...
JOASH – 1. (Called also Jehoash.) —Biblical Data: Son of Ahaziah and Zibiah of Beer-sheba; eighth king of Judah (II Kings xii. 1, 2). Joash was the only descendant of the house of David living at the time of Ahaziah's death that escaped...
JOTHAM – 1. Youngest son of Gideon or Jerubbaal. On the death of Gideon (Judges viii. 33) the children of Israel fell back into the slough of idolatry, from the results of which he had so signally delivered them by the battle against...
LACHISH – Siege of Lachish by the Troops of Sennacherib.(From Layard's "Monuments of Nineveh.")The city of Lachish was located in Judah (Josh. xv. 39). It is first heard of in Josh. x. 3 et seq. Its king, Japhia, together with the kings...
MAACAH – 1. Small Aramean kingdom east of the Sea of Galilee (I Chron. xix. 6). Its territory was in the region assigned to the half-tribe of Manasseh east of the Jordan. Maacah, its king, became a mercenary of the Ammonites in their war...