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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
HENRY, EMMA – English poetess; born Sept. 17, 1788; died Dec. 30, 1870; daughter of the Rev. Solomon Lyon, professor of Hebrew at Cambridge, and wife of Abraham Henry. She enjoyed in early life the advantages of a broad education and the...
HENRY, HENRY A. – Anglo-American rabbi and Hebraist; born in London 1800; died at San Francisco, Cal., Sept. 4, 1879. He was educated at the Jews' Free School, London, of which he was afterward principal until 1842. In this capacity he was the...
HENRY, MICHAEL – English journalist and mechanician; born at Kennington, London, Feb. 19, 1830; died in London June 15, 1875. He was educatedat the City of London School; in 1844 he went to Paris as clerk in a counting-house, and later entered...
HEP! HEP! – A cry stated to have been used by the Crusaders during their attacks upon the Jews. It appears, however, to have been first used duringthe so-called "Hep! Hep!" riots of 1819 at Frankfort-on-the-Main and along the Rhine (see...
HEREFORD – County town of Herefordshire, England, situated on the River Wye, of some commercial importance in early times. When Richard I. returned from captivity, ten Jews of Hereford contributed £15 11s. 11d. to a "donum" made by the...
HEROD I – King of Judea 40-4 B.C.; founder of the Herodian dynasty; born about 73 B.C.; son of Antipater, and, consequently, of Idumean origin. It is said that when he was a boy of twelve an Essene named Menahem predicted that he would...
HEROD II. – King of Chalcis; son of Aristobulus and Berenice; grandson of Herod I. and the first Mariamne; brother of Agrippa I. and Herodias; died 48-49 C.E. He first married Mariamne, granddaughter of Herod I. From this union came...
HERODIAN DYNASTY, PEDIGREE OF – On page 361 is a genealogical tree of the family of Herod, which succeeded the Hasmoneans. The family was of Idumean origin, its most distinguished representative being Herod the Great. Antipater and his direct descendants are...
HERODIAS – Pedigree of the Herodian Dynasty. Daughter of Aristobulus and Berenice and granddaughter of Herod I. and of his sister Salome. She was first married to her uncle Herod (not Philip, as in Mark vi. 17; see Schürer, "Gesch." i....
HERODIUM – Fortified city three leagues south of Jerusalem; founded by Herod I. It was built on a rocky and rugged hill. Its citadel contained royal apartments of great strength and splendor, and served as a sarcophagus for Herod. In the...
HERSCHEL, SIR WILLIAM – English astronomer; born at Hanover Nov. 15, 1738; died at Slough, near Windsor, England, Aug. 22, 1822. His Jewish descent is acknowledged by his biographer, Holden, and it is also indicated by the fact that his grandfather was...
HERSCHELL, LORD FARRER – Lord Chancellor of England; born 1837; died March 1, 1899. His father was the Rev. Ridley H. Herschell. He was educated at University College, London, and at the University of Bonn, and took his degree at London University in...
HERSCHELL, RIDLEY HAIM – Missionary to the Jews; born at Strzelno, Prussian Poland, April 7, 1807; died at Brighton, England, April 14, 1864. The son of Jewish parents, he was educated at Berlin University (1822), and was baptized in England by the...
HERSCHELL, SOLOMON – Chief rabbi of the Ashkenazim in England; born in London 1762, during the rabbinate of his father, R. Hirsch Levin; died there Oct. 31, 1842. His family could boast a long genealogy of learned men, including R. Meïr of Padua....
HERTZ, JOSEPH HERMAN – American rabbi; born at Rebrin, Zemplén Comitat, Hungary, Sept. 25, 1872; educated at the College of the City of New York, at Columbia University (Ph.D.), and at the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. On June 15, 1894, he...
SHABBAT HA-GADOL – The Sabbath preceding Passover. The designation "great" for this Sabbath is mentioned by Rashi (11th cent.), and is due to the great miracle of the Sabbath that preceded the Exodus, as related in the Midrash. When God ordered...
HEZEKIAH – 1. King of Judah (726-697 B.C.).—Biblical Data: Son of Ahaz and Abi or Abijah; ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five and reigned twenty-nine years (II Kings xviii. 1-2; II Chron. xxix. 1). Hezekiah was the opposite of...
HILLEL B. SAMUEL B. NAḤMAN – Palestinian haggadist of the fourth century. It may be assumed that his father was his teacher; but he had other instructors also, among them being Levi b. Ḥama (Ber. 28b). According to Hillel, the merits of the teacher are, in...
HIPPOCRATES – Greek physician; born in Cos 460 B.C.; died at Larissa in Thessaly about 360 B.C. He studied medicine under Herodicus of Selymbria and under his father, Heraclides, and philosophy under Gorgias of Leontini and Democritus of...
HISTORIOGRAPHY – Method of writing history. In Bible times the Jews showed a strong historical sense, as evidenced by the series of books from Genesis to Kings devoted to the history of the people. Without entering into the vexed question of the...
HIRSCHFELD, HARTWIG – English Orientalist; born at Thorn, Prussia. He studied at Posen, at the universities of Berlin and Strasburg, and at Paris under Derenbourg. In 1887 he edited Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" in Arabic and Hebrew, and translated it...
HIRSCHSPRUNG, HEINRICH – Danish manufacturer and art-collector; born in Copenhagen Feb. 7, 1836; son of Abraham Marcus Hirschsprung (1793-1871), who in 1826 founded one of the largest tobacco-factories in Denmark, of which Heinrich Hirschsprung is still...
HISTORISCHE COMMISSION – Commission appointed by the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemein-debund in 1885 for the collection and publication of material relating to the history of the Jews in Germany. It consisted originally of Privy Councilor Kristeller, and...
HITZIG, FERDINAND – German Christian theologian; born at Hauingen, Baden, June 23, 1807; died at Heidelberg Jan. 22, 1875. After studying under Gesenius at Halle and under Ewald at Göttingen, he taught at Heidelberg from 1830 to 1833, in which year...
HIVITES – One of the Canaanitic nations dispossessed by the children of Israel (Gen. x. 17; Ex. xxiii. 23, 28; et al.). In the Hebrew text the name occurs only in the singular; its meaning is, according to Gesenius, "the villager" (comp....