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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
HOFFER, LEOPOLD – Journalist and chess editor; born 1842, in Budapest. He removed to France about 1866, and began to play chess in Paris. In 1870 he settled in London, where he has since resided. Hoffer has become widely known as a writer on...
HOGA, STANISLAUS – English convert to Christianity; lived in London in the nineteenth century. He published "Songs of Zion," a selection of English and German hymns translated into Hebrew (1834; 2d ed., with additions, 1842). Hoga also wrote, in...
HOLY SPIRIT – Biblical View of the Spirit. The most noticeable difference between sentient beings and dead things, between the living and the dead, is in the breath. Whatever lives breathes; whatever is dead does not breathe. Aquila, by...
HORWITZ, BERNARD – Chess player and writer on chess; born 1809 in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg; died in London 1885. A chess pupil of Mendheim in Berlin, he became known as one of the "Pleiades," a name given to the seven leaders of the new...
IBN SHEM-ṬOB, JOSEPH BEN SHEMṬOB – One of the most prolific Judæo-Spanish writers of the fifteenth century; born in Castile; died 1480. He lived in various cities of Spain: Medina del Campo de Leon (1441); Alcala di Henares (1451); Segovia (1454). Though it is...
HOSPITAL – House set apart for the treatment of the sick. In early times such institutions were required only for strangers, the idea of sanitary isolation being quite modern, except in case of Leprosy, when a "house of separation" ("bet...
HOST, DESECRATION OF – Defiling the host or sacred wafer of the mass. In the Middle Ages theJews were frequently accused of desecrating the host, an accusation equal in gravity to that of desecrating relics and images of Jesus and the saints. This...
HOST, DESECRATION OF – Defiling the host or sacred wafer of the mass. In the Middle Ages theJews were frequently accused of desecrating the host, an accusation equal in gravity to that of desecrating relics and images of Jesus and the saints. This...
HOUBIGANT, CHARLES FRANÇOIS – French Christian Hebraist; born in Paris in 1686; died there Oct. 31, 1783. In 1704 Houbigant entered the order of the Congregation of the Oratory. The pupil of Maclef, he was imbued with his teacher's anti-Masoretic prejudices....
HUGH OF LINCOLN – Alleged victim of ritual murder by the Jews of Lincoln in 1255. He appears to have been the illegitimate son of a woman named "Beatrice," and was born in 1247. He disappeared July 31, 1255, and his body was discovered on Aug. 29...
HULL – Seaport of Yorkshire, England. It has a population (1901) of over 241,753, including about 2,500 Jews. The earliest trace of Jews there occurs toward the end of the eighteenth century, when they acquired for a synagogue a...
HUNTING – Pursuit of wild game; the common means of obtaining food before the pastoral or agricultural stage of development. The Hebrews of the Biblical age, however, seem to have passed this stage, as the heroes of Biblical story...
HUR – 1. Biblical Data: Man of Judah, the grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxxi. 2, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 22). According to the fuller genealogy in I Chron. ii. 18-20, he was the first-born son of...
IBN SHEM-ṬOB, SHEM-ṬOB (BEN JOSEPH?) – Spanish cabalist; a fanatical opponent of rationalistic philosophy; president of a yeshibah in Spain; lived about 1390-1440 (Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya, "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," ed. Venice, p. 62b). He was the father of Joseph and...
HURWITZ, HYMAN – Professor of Hebrew and author; born 1770; died 1844. He was a native of Poland, in which country he acquired great proficiency in Biblical and Talmudical lore. He then went to England, and, making rapid progress with the...
HYAMS, ABRAHAM – Beni-Israel physician; died March 20, 1897; son of Hacem Samuel, president of the Beni-Israel School, Bombay. After taking his degree of licentiate in medicine and surgery, Hyams practised as a physician in Bombay, and in...
IBN EZRA, MOSES BEN JACOB HA-SALLAḤ (ABU HARUN MUSA) – Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet; born at Granada about 1070; (died after 1138; relative of Abraham ibn Ezra and pupil of Isaacibn Ghayyat. The surname "ha-Sallaḥ" is generally believed to have been given him on account...
IBN SHEM-ṬOB, SHEM-ṬOB BEN JOSEPH BEN SHEM-ṬOB – Spanish writer and philosopher; flourished about 1461-89; lived in Segovia and Almazan. He was a follower of Maimonides, even though his grandfather Shem-Ṭob ibn Shem-Ṭob was one of Maimonides' most uncompromising opponents, and...
IBN SHOSHAN – Spanish family of Toledo, which can be traced back to the twelfth century and which is known to have existed up to the seventeenth century. Its first known representative was Solomon, called "Paṭṭish he-Ḥazaḳ" (="the mighty...
IBN YA'ISH, BARUCH BEN ISAAC – Philosopher and translator of the fifteenth century; apparently a native of Spain, though he lived in Italy. Ibn Ya'ish, in addition to being a master of Hebrew, had a thorough knowledge of Arabic and Latin. His only original...
IDIOCY – Mental deficiency, depending upon disease or imperfect development of the nervous system, and dating from birth or from early infancy previous to the evolution of the mental faculties.Though the parents of more than 15 per cent...
IMBER, NAPHTALI HERZ – Austrian Hebrew poet; born at Zloczow, Galicia, in 1856. After the usual Talmudic training he began his wandering life by journeying to Vienna and Constantinople. At the latter place he met Laurence Oliphant, with whom he spent...
INCEST – Biblical Data: Marriage or carnal commerce between persons of a close degree of consanguinity. Even in modern times the connotation of "incestuous" is not the same in all countries. Among primitive and barbarous races there is a...
INCUNABULA – Works printed in the fifteenth century. Those of Jewish interest consist of (a) works printed in Hebrew and (b) works in other types relating to Jewish subjects. Of the former about 101 can be traced as certainly printed before...
INDIA – An extensive region of southern Asia, comprising many countries, races, and sects. Including about 2,800 in the settlement of Aden, which is administered by the presidency of Bombay, there are at present about 21,000 Jews in the...