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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
INHERITANCE – Biblical Data: Among the early Hebrews, as well as among many other nations of antiquity, custom decided that the next of kin should enter upon the possession of the estate of a deceased person. The first-born son usually...
INN – House of entertainment for travelers. In the Bible references are made to lodging-places ("malon") where caravans or parties of travelers stopped for the night (comp. Gen. xlii. 27, xliii. 21; Ex. iv. 24). This does not...
INSANITY – Mental disease. Among the Jews the proportion of insane has been observed to be very large. From statistics collected by Buschan he concludes that they are four to six times more liable to mental disease than are non-Jews....
INTELLIGENCERS – Persons who supply intelligence or secret information; Stuart English for "spies." A number of crypto-Jews in London supplied Cromwell with "intelligence" in connection with foreign and colonial affairs. In 1655, during the...
INTERMARRIAGE – Biblical Prohibition. Marriage between persons of different races or tribes. A prohibition to intermarry with the Canaanites is found in Deut. vii. 3, where it is said: "Neither shalt thou make marriages with them [any of the...
IRELAND – An island west of Great Britain, forming part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The earliest mention of Jews in Ireland appears toward the end of the eleventh century, although, curiously enough, quite a number...
POVERTY – Condition or proportion of poor in a population. Although the riches of the Jews have passed into a proverb, all social observers are agreed that the Jews have a larger proportion of poor than any of the European nations among...
ISAAC, JOHANN LEVITA – German professor of Hebrew; born 1515; died at Cologne 1577. At first a rabbi at Wetzlar, he was baptized as a Protestant in 1546, but embraced the Roman Catholic faith when called to Cologne as professor of Hebrew, in which...
ISḤAḲ BEN YA'ḲUB OBADIAH ABU 'ISA AL-ISFAHANI – Persian founder of a Jewish sect and "herald of the Messiah"; lived at the time of the Ommiad calif 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (684-705). He was of low origin, "a plain tailor"; and his adherents relate that "though he could...
ISAAC OF NORWICH (Isaac b. Eliab) – English financier of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was among the Jews imprisoned by King John in 1210 ("Select Pleas of the Jewish Exchequer," ed. Riggs, p. 3). It is possible that at this time a house of his in...
ISAAC, SAMUEL – Promoter of the Mersey Tunnel, near Liverpool, England; born at Chatham, England, 1812; died in London Nov. 22, 1886. He went to London as a young man, and carried on a large business as an army contractor in Jermyn street,...
ISAACS, SIR HENRY AARON – Former Lord Mayor of London; born in that city Aug. 15, 1830. For a quarter of a century he labored in the best interests of the city of London. He agitated for improving the dwellings of the poor, and was mainly instrumental in...
ISAACS, ISAAC A. – Australian statesman and jurist; born at Melbourne, Victoria, Aug. 6, 1855; educated at Melbourne University, and admitted to the Victorian bar in 1880. From 1892 to 1901 he was a member of the Legislative Assembly, after which...
ISAACS, NATHANIEL – African traveler; born in England 1808; died after 1840. He left England in 1822 for St. Helena, where his uncle was consul for France and Holland. In 1825 he accompanied Lieut. King, R.N., to the Cape of Good Hope and thence to...
ISAACS, REBECCA – English actress and singer; born in London June 26, 1828; died there April 21, 1877. Her father, John Isaacs, an actor and singer of Covent Garden Theater, trained her for the stage, on which she first appeared March 17, 1835....
SHALMANESER – King of Assyria from 727 to 722 B.C.; successor, and possibly son, of Tiglath-pileser III. According to II Kings xvii. 3-6, he attacked Hoshea, King of Israel, and made him his vassal. Later Hoshea conspired with So (probably...
ISIDORUS HISPALENSIS – Archbishop of Seville; flourished in the sixth and seventh centuries. He presided over the fourth Council of Toledo, called together by the Visigothic king Sisenand (633), and gave expression to the principle that Jews ought not...
ISRAELITISCH-THEOLOGISCHE LEHRANSTALT – Rabbinical and teachers' seminary in Vienna, founded 1893 at the suggestion of Wilhelm and David von Guttmann and with the assistance of Albert von Rothschild and Freiherr von Königswarter, and opened Oct. 15 of that year. It is...
IXAR (HIJAR) – Town in Aragon, Spain, 62 miles to the northeast of Teruel. Here were printed by Eliezer Alantansi two parts of the Spanish edition of the Arba' Ṭurim: the Oraḥ Ḥayyim in 1485, and the Yoreh De'ah in 1487, possibly in...
JABLONSKI, DANIEL E. – German Christian theologian and Orientalist; born Nov. 26, 1660, in Danzig; died May 25, 1741, in Berlin. After spending some time as a wandering scholar in the universities of Holland and England, he settled in Lissa in 1686,...
JACKSON, HARRY – English actor; born in London 1836; died there Aug. 13, 1885. At an early age he left England for Australia, where he adopted the stage as a profession. After playing at Auckland, New Zealand, and at San Francisco (1856-1862) he...
JACOB BEN AMRAM – Polemical writer of the seventeenth century. He wrote in 1634, in Latin, a book against the religion of the Christians, with the Hebrew title "Sha'ar Emet" ("Porta Veritatis"). He borrows largely from Manasseh ben Israel, but...
JACOB BEN ḤAYYIM BEN ISAAC IBN ADONIJAH – Masorite and printer; born about 1470 at Tunis (hence sometimes called Tunisi); died before 1538. He left his native country in consequence of the persecutions that broke out there at the beginning of the sixteenth century....
JACOB BEN JUDAH ḤAZZAN OF LONDON – English codifier of the thirteenth century. His grandfather was one Jacob he-Aruk (possibly Jacob le Long). In 1287 Jacob wrote "'Eẓ Ḥayyim," a ritual code in two parts, containing sixty and forty-six sections respectively,...
JACOB OF LONDON – First known presbyter of the Jews of England; appointed to that position by King John in 1199, who also gave him a safe conduct. He appears to have died in 1217, when Josce is mentioned as his successor. He is possibly identical...