JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
SYDNEY – Beginnings of the Community. Capital of New South Wales, Australia. Its congregation dates from 1817, when about a score of Jews formed a ḥebra ḳaddisha, and they obtained permission to bury their dead in a special corner of the...
SYLVESTER, JAMES JOSEPH – English mathematician and Savilian professor of geometry in the University of Oxford; born in London Sept. 3, 1814; died there March 15, 1897. He was educated at Neumegen's school, at the Royal Institution, Liverpool, and at St....
SYMBOL – A visible representation of an object or an idea. In Hebrew the word denoting symbol is "ot," which in early Judaism denoted not only a sign, but also a visible religious token of the mystic relation between God and man. In the...
SYNAGOGUE ARCHITECTURE – Kafr Bir'im Synagogue. Ancient Jewish art is mainly represented by the Temple and its fittings, of which all that is left to contemplate is the lower portion of a fortified wall. Even if this overstates the fact, it is most...
SYNAGOGUE ARCHITECTURE – Kafr Bir'im Synagogue. Ancient Jewish art is mainly represented by the Temple and its fittings, of which all that is left to contemplate is the lower portion of a fortified wall. Even if this overstates the fact, it is most...
SZOLD, HENRIETTA – Eldest daughter of Benjamin Szold; born at Baltimore, Md. Since 1893 she has been secretary of the literary committee of the Jewish Publication Society of America, and in connection therewith has translated Darmesteter on the...
TABERNACLES, FEAST OF – Name. —Biblical Data: Third of the great festivals on which all males were required to make pilgrimages to the Temple at Jerusalem. The celebration of this festival begins on the fifteenth day of the seventh month (Tishri)....
TALKAR, DANIEL RAHAMIM – Beni-Israel soldier; enlisted in the 4th Rifles on April 1, 1842. He was made jemidar and native adjutant on Jan. 1, 1857; subahdar on Jan. 1, 1861; subahdar-major and bahadur in 1878. He served with the reserve forces in the...
TALKAR, EZEKIEL – Beni-Israel soldier; born at Ahmedabad, India, in 1848; joined the 3d Regiment, Native Light Infantry, now called Bombay Rifles, on Sept. 16, 1864. He was promoted jemidar Jan. 1, 1877; subahdar Oct. 5, 1879; and subahdar-major...
TALLAGE – A tax arbitrarily imposed upon a community, which was made collectively responsible for the entire sum. This tax was frequently levied on the English Jews during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. A tallage of £60,000, known...
ṬALLIT – Mantle with fringes (ẓiẓit) at the four corners; a prayer-shawl worn over the garments, and used by men after marriage and, in modern times, by boys after their confirmation as "bar miẓwot." The ṭallit, which can be spread out...
TALLY – A piece of wood on which is written a deed of indebtedness, the sum due being indicated by notches along the edge. The stick is then cut in two in such a manner that each piece thereof contains a part of every notch. One part is...
TALMUD TORAH – Public free school for poor and orphaned boys, who are there given an elementary education in Hebrew, the Scriptures (especially the Pentateuch), and the Talmud (Halakah), and are thus prepared for the Yeshibah. The Talmud Torah...
TAMMUZ – Babylonian deity supposed to be referred to in Ezek. viii. 14. He is regarded as the husband, or sometimes as the son, of the goddess Ishtar, who descended to Hades every year in the fourth month, named after him,and remained...
TAMMUZ – Fourth ecclesiastical and tenth civil month of the Hebrew calendar. It consists of twenty-nine days, and corresponds to part of June and part of July. During the last years of the Second Temple the 14th of Tammuz was declared a...
TANG, ABRAHAM – English author; flourished in London in the latter half of the eighteenth century. In 1773 he published a philosophic commentary on Ecclesiastes which gives evidence of some classical scholarship. The mythology of Greece and of...
TANNENBAUM, ABNER – Yiddish and Hebrew journalist; born at Schirwind, East Prussia, March 1, 1848. He studied in Kamenetz-Podolsk and in the Kisbinef Lyceum, and was awarded a diploma by the Imperial University of Odessa for his historical and...
TAPPUAH – 1. City in the Shefelah, described as lying between the towns of En-gannim and Enam; probably situated north of the Wadi al-Sunṭ, and identical with the modern 'Artuf (Josh. xv. 34). 2. City in Ephraim, marking the western...
TARREGA – City of Catalonia. Jews were among its inhabitants when the counts of Barcelona took Catalonia from the Moors. They enjoyed certain privileges, which were confirmed in 1332 and later. At the special request of the king the...
TARSUS – Turkish town in the vilayet of Adana, 12 miles from the Mediterranean, on the River Cydnus. During the Roman period it was the capital of Cilicia. It was important on account of its commerce and its textile products, and was...
TAX-GATHERERS – In Palestine Under Egyptian Rule. During the Egyptian government of Palestine the taxes of each city were annually leased to the highest bidder (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 4, § 3). The lessee paid into the royal treasury a fixed...
TAXATION – Biblical Data: The Bible gives scant information concerning the secular or political taxes of the Jews. Practically all that can be gathered is the following: Just as Abraham (Gen. xiv. 20) voluntarily gave a tenth "of all"...
TAYLOR, CHARLES – English Christian Hebraist; born in London 1840; educated at King's College, London, and St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he is now master. In 1874 he published an edition of "Coheleth"; in 1877 "Sayings of the Jewish...
ṬAYYIB – Tunisian family, first known in the second half of the seventeenth century. The more prominent members are the following:Abraham ṭayyib: Grandson of Abraham b. Isaac ṭayyib (see below); lived at the end of the eighteenth...
TEHERAN – Capital and commercial center of Persia; situated about seventy miles south of the Caspian Sea. The chief development of the city took place within the last half of the nineteenth century, under Shah Naṣir al-Din, whose court...