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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
TEḲUFAH – Seasons. Season of the year. The four teḳufot are: (1) Teḳufat Nisan, the vernal equinox (March 21), when the sun enters Aries; this is the beginning of spring, or "'et hazera'" (seed-time), when day and night are equal; (2)...
TEMPLE, ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICE OF – Officers. The affairs of the Second Temple were managed by a board of fifteen appointed officers ("memunnim"). The Mishnah records the following names of officers of the Temple without stating their respective periods of...
TEMPLE, PLAN OF SECOND – The plan and description of the Second Temple according to Talmudic sources were as follows:Mount Moriah, known as the "Har ha-Bayit" (Mount of the House), had an area of 500 × 500 cubits or ells (1 cubit = 21.85 inches). It was...
TEMPLE IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE – Site. Holy of Holies of the Temple at Jerusalem.(Reconstructed by Chipiez.)Mount Moriah, on which the Temple was erected, is known by tradition as the spot where Adam was born and where he built an altar to God; where Cain and...
TOBIADS – Jewish party in the Maccabean period. A combination of the statements of Josephus ("Ant." xii. 4, §§ 1-11) and of II Macc. iii. 11 yields an interesting family history, which, however, requires critical examination.During the...
THRESHOLD – In early times the threshold had a special sanctity; and that of the Temple was a marked spot, indicating specific taboos (see I Sam. v. 4 et seq.; comp. Zeph. i. 9). There were special keepers (A. V. "porters") of the threshold...
THRONE – 1. A royal seat, or chair of state. The king sits "upon the throne of his kingdom" (Deut. xvii. 18). Pharaoh delegated full power toJoseph to rule over Egypt; "only in the throne will I be greater than thou" (Gen. xli. 40). The...
TIBNI – One of the rulers of the kingdom of Israel during the interregnum between Zimri and Omri; son of Ginath. When Zimri, after a reign of seven days, had ended his life, the people of Israel were divided into two factions, one...
TIEN-TSIN – Commercial city of China. Its Jewish inhabitants number about 150, most of whom are Russian and Polish. They have not organized as a community and hold divine services only during the penitential season, when private halls are...
TIGLATH-PILESER – King of Assyria from 747 to 727 B.C.; designated by modern Oriental historians as Tiglath-pileser III. He first appears under the name "Pul" (II Kings xv. 19; comp. I Chron. v. 26), the proper form of which is "Pulu," as is seen...
TITHE – The tenth part of anything, appropriated as tax or sacrifice.—Biblical Data: Tithing one's possessions was a very ancient custom, existing as early as the time of the Patriarchs. Abraham gave Melchizedek "tithes of all" (Gen....
TITHE – The tenth part of anything, appropriated as tax or sacrifice.—Biblical Data: Tithing one's possessions was a very ancient custom, existing as early as the time of the Patriarchs. Abraham gave Melchizedek "tithes of all" (Gen....
TITLE-PAGE – Title-Page of "Sefer Niẓẓaḥon," Altdorf, 1644.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)Hebrew incunabula, like manuscripts, were mostly provided with colophons, which served as...
TITLES OF HEBREW BOOKS – In Hebrew literature, books, with few exceptions, are recognized by their titles independently of their authors' names. Citations from and references to the "Pene Yehoshua'," or "Sha'agat Aryeh," are often made by students who...
TITLES OF HONOR – Words and phrases applied to persons to distinguish their noble birth, or their official or social rank and station, or as marks of acknowledgment of their learning and piety.Origin. —Biblical Data: The title "adon" = "lord" was...
TITLES OF HONOR – Words and phrases applied to persons to distinguish their noble birth, or their official or social rank and station, or as marks of acknowledgment of their learning and piety.Origin. —Biblical Data: The title "adon" = "lord" was...
TITUS – Emperor of Rome from 79 to 81; born in 39 or 41; died Sept. 13, 81; son of Vespasian, the conqueror of Jerusalem. He was educated at the courts of Claudius and Nero. Titus served first in Germany and later in Britain under his...
TOBACCO – In Jewish Law. The use of tobacco for smoking and in the form of snuff is commonamong Jews, who in some countries control to a large extent the manufacture and sale of the product. It is asserted that a Jew named Luis de Terres,...
TODROS BEN MESHULLAM BEN DAVID – Provençal translator; born at Arles in the early part of the fourteenth century. Of his life no details are known except that in 1337 he lived at Trinquetaille, where he completed his translation of Aristotle's "Rhetoric." Many...
TOLEDANO – A family taking its name from Toledo, the city in which it originated, and including printers, Talmudic scholars, rabbis, and diplomats in Turkey, Africa, Holland, and England, being still represented in Salonica, Jerusalem,...
TOLEDO – Interior of the Church of St. Maria la Blanca, Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.) Interior of "El Transito," Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.)Metropolitan city of Gothic and Moorish Spain, and...
TOMBS – From the earliest times the Hebrews practised burial of the dead ( , whence "ḳeber" = "tomb"), so that cremation, which was customary among the Moabites and Edomites, was regarded by the Jewish prophets as sinful and inhuman...
TOMBSTONES – None in Palestine in Biblical or Talmudic Times. Cemetery at Rome.(From a photograph.)The custom of marking a grave by a stone which bore an inscription describing the qualities of the deceased and giving his age and the date of...
TOMBSTONES – None in Palestine in Biblical or Talmudic Times. Cemetery at Rome.(From a photograph.)The custom of marking a grave by a stone which bore an inscription describing the qualities of the deceased and giving his age and the date of...
TORAH – Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a...