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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BEZAI – A family, 324 of whose members returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 17, and the parallel account, Neh. vii. 23). The name also occurs in the list of those who signed the covenant with Nehemiah, and may there be identified with the...
BEZALEL – Biblical Data: In Ex. xxxi. 1-6, the chief architect of the Tabernacle. Elsewhere in the Bible the name occurs only in the genealogical lists of the Book of Chronicles, but according to cuneiform inscriptions a variant form of...
BEZEK – 1. The scene of battle between the tribes of Judah and Simeon, and the Canaanites and Perizzites (Judges i. 4-6). 2. Place where Saul collected his forces for the fight against the Ammonites (I Sam. xi. 8). Identified with the...
BEZER – A city of refuge in the territory of Reuben (Deut. iv. 43; Josh. xx. 8). It was also one of the cities allotted the Levites by the tribe of Reuben (Josh. xxi. 36, Septuagint; I Chron. vi. 63 [A. V. 78]). In the Mesha inscription...
BEZETHA – According to Josephus, the name of a hill north of the Temple-mound, and separated from the latter by a valley. After the erection of the third wall it became part of the city of Jerusalem. Josephus ("B. J." ii. 15, § 5; ii. 19,...
BIDKAR – A captain under Jehu, by whom he was ordered to cast the body of Jehoram into the field of Naboth (II Kings ix. 25).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BIGTHAN – A eunuch of Ahasuerus, who, with Teresh, conspired against the king (Esther ii. 21, vi. 2). The conspiracy was discovered by Mordecai, and on his information the eunuchs were put to death (Esther ii. 23). In vi. 2 the name is...
BILDAD – One of the three friends of Job (Job ii. 11). The meaning of the name is not clear; opinions of scholars vacillate between rendering "Bel has loved" (compare "Eldad," Num. xi. 26 et seq., and "Elidad," Num. xxxiv. 21; Nöldeke,...
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BINNUI – 1. A Levite (Ezra viii. 33). 2. One of the Bene Pahath Moab who had taken foreign wives (Ezra x. 30). 3. One of the Bene Bani, also found in the list of those who had taken foreign wives (Ezra x. 38). 4. Son of Henadad, who...
BIRDS – Biblical Data: The general designation for winged animals is "'of" ( , Hosea ix. 11; Isa. xvi. 2) or "'of kanaf" ( , Gen. i. 21), "ẓippor" ( , Gen. xv. 10), or "ẓippor kanaf" ( , Deut. iv. 17; Ps. cxlviii. 10), or "ba'al kanaf"...
BIRTHRIGHT – Biblical Data: The right of possession into which the eldest son is born. The first son born to the father occupied a prominent place in the Hebrew family (Gen. xxvii. 19, xxxv. 23, xli. 51, xlix. 3; II Sam. iii. 2). Such a one...
BITHIAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered of the tribe of Judah married (I Chron. iv. 18). In the Midrash (Lev. R. § 1) she is called the foster-mother of Moses.J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Daughter of Pharaoh;...
BITTERN – From an examination of the passages in which "ḳippod" occurs it would seem that a bird is meant by the word. In Isa. xxxiv. 11, "But the cormorant and the ḳippod shall possess it; the owl also, and the raven shall dwell in it,"...
BITUMEN – A substance said (in Gen. xi. 3) to have been used for mortar. It belongs to the class of hydrocarbons, and is a resultant from petroleum, after having gradually undergone evaporation and oxidation. The continuation of this...
BIZTHA – One of the seven eunuchs of Ahasuerus, who was commanded to bring Vashti to the king (Esther i. 10).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BLESSING AND CURSING – Efficacy of Blessing and Cursing. The Hebrew verb for "bless" is "berek" ( ). Since in Assyrian and Minæan the corresponding verb appears to be "karabu," it is not likely that the Hebrew is connected with its homonym "berek" (...
BLOOD-RELATIONSHIP – Biblical Data: Family connection between persons otherwise than by marriage. To the casual reader of the Old Testament, blood-relationship seems always to have been reckoned by the Hebrews from father to son. The genealogies are...
BOAR, WILD – In Psalm lxxx. 14 the wild boar is introduced in a metaphor and described as coming out of the wood to root up the vine. Wild hogs have always been known in Palestine.Richard Cœur de Lion is said to have had an encounter with a...
BOAZ – Biblical Data: One of the relatives of Elimelech, husband of Naomi; a wealthy Judean, living at Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth ii. 1). He was one of the kinsmen of Ruth; as such he had the privilege of redeeming the family estate sold...
BOAZ – Biblical Data: One of the relatives of Elimelech, husband of Naomi; a wealthy Judean, living at Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth ii. 1). He was one of the kinsmen of Ruth; as such he had the privilege of redeeming the family estate sold...
BOCHIM – Name of a place near Beth-el. The Septuagint reads in Judges ii. 1, "The place of weeping to Beth-el and to all Israel." It may be identical with Beth-el itself (see Moore, Judges, ad loc.).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BOIL – The rendering, in the English versions of the Scriptures, of the Hebrew word "sheḥin," which comes from a root meaning "to warm," and indicates an inflamed spot. In the Bible it is used to describe two distinct forms of disease,...
BOOTH – A rendering, in the English versions of the Bible, of the Hebrew word "sukkah"; also occasionally translated "pavilion" or "cottage." The ordinary habitation of the nomad is the tent, a rough textile fabric of goat's hair,...