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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
ASARAMEL – A name of uncertain meaning and intent occurring in I Macc. xiv. 28. The reading, as it has come down, gives it as the name of a place; but it is possible that it really is the name or a title of Simon. In support of the first...
ASARELAH – One of the Asaphites appointed by David to the Temple service, according to I Chron. xxv. 2). In verse 14 the same personage appears as "Jesharelah." The readings "Asarelah" and "Jesarelah" (with s) seem preferable. The...
ASENATH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, and wife of Joseph (Gen. xli. 45). The name is apparently Egyptian; but no satisfactory explanation has yet been proposed.J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: That...
ASH – The A. V. rendering of the Hebrew "oren" (Isa. xliv. 14); R. V. has "fir-tree." According to TanḦum (quoted in Gesenius, "Thesaurus," under ), the word was used in later Hebrew in the sense of "mast." The plural, "oranim"—for...
ASHAN – Town in the domain of Judah (Josh. xv. 42), but which was in the actual possession of Simeon (Josh. xix. 7; I Chron. iv. 32). Priests also had residence in Ashan (I Chron. vi. 44); though in the corresponding passage of Josh....
ASHBEL – A son of Benjamin (Gen. xlvi. 21, and in the genealogical list of I Chron. viii. 1). The gentilic name "Ashbelite" is found in Num. xxvi. 38.J. Jr. G. B. L.
ASHDOD – The northernmost of the five royal cities of the Philistines, two to three miles from the seacoast, about half-way between Gaza and Joppa. In I Sam. vi. 17 it is mentioned first among the principal Philistine cities; and the Ark...
ASHDOTH-PISGAH – The declivities of the Pisgah range on the east of the Jordan, which were handed over to the Reubenites (Deut. iii. 17, iv. 49; Jos. xiii. 20) (see Pisgah).J. Jr. G. B. L.
ASHER – Biblical Data: The eighth son of the patriarch Jacob, and the traditional progenitor of the tribe Asher. He is represented as the younger brother of Gad; these two being the sons of Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah (Gen. xxx. 10 et...
ASHER, Tribe and Territory – Situation. —Biblical Data: The fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: "Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall yield the dainties of a king" (Gen. xlix. 20, Hebr.). Until the settlement...
ASHER, Tribe and Territory – Situation. —Biblical Data: The fortune of Asher is foreshadowed in the Blessing of Jacob, where it is said: "Asher, his food shall be rich, and he shall yield the dainties of a king" (Gen. xlix. 20, Hebr.). Until the settlement...
ASHERAH – A Hebrew word occurring frequently in the Bible (R. V.) and signifying, except in a few late passages noted below, a wooden post or pole planted near the altars of various gods. In the Authorized Version the word is rendered...
ASHES – Use. —Biblical Data: The usual translation of the Hebrew "efer" which occurs often in expressions of mourning and in other connectionsIt is a symbol of insignificance or nothingness in persons or words (Gen. xviii. 27; Isa....
ASHIMA – Biblical Data: One of the gods of the Hamathites, an image of which was set up in Samaria by the men of Hamath, whom Sargon settled there after 722 B.C. (II Kings xvii. 30). Jewish tradition explains the name as signifying a...
ASHKELON – City on the southern coast of Palestine. It occurs in Egyptian texts twice as "Asḳaruni," among the cities revolting against Rameses II. (see illustration, p. 192) and Meneptah; in the El-Amarna tablets, the prince Yitia of...
ASHMUN – The name of a Phenician god worshiped at Sidon and Carthage, in Cyprus and in Sardinia. A trilingual inscription from the latter island ("C. I. S." 143) identifies him with Æsculapius, the Greek god of healing. Near Sidon,...
ASHPENAZ – Chief of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. i. 3).J. JR. G. B. L.
ASHTAROTH – A city east of the Jordan on the table-land of Gilead. It was the capital of the kingdom of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. ix. 10), though it would seem from other passages (Deut. i. 4; Josh. xii. 4, xiii. 12 and 31) that Edrei...
ASHTEROTH KARNAIM – A town east of the Jordan (Gen. xiv. 5; "Onomastica," ed. Lagarde, 209, 61, 213, 39); called simply "Karnaim" in Amos vi. 13 (so Wellhausen, Nowack, and G. A. Smith, ad loc.), in I Macc. v. 43, and II Macc. xii. 21, 26. The...
ASHTORETH – The name given in the Old Testament to the old Semitic mother-goddess, called in Phenicia, Ashtarte; in Babylonia, Ishtar; and in Arabia, Athtar. (For her worship among the Hebrews, see Astarte.) Ashtoreth is derived from...
ASIEL – 1. Found only in the genealogy of Simeon (I Chron. iv. 35). 2. One of the five skilled writers who wrote the law for Ezra (II Esd. xiv. 24). 3. Ancestor of Tobit (Tobit i. 1, R. V.; A. V. reads "Asael").J. Jr. G. B. L....
ASNAPPER – A person who transplanted the mixed multitude of tribes from Babylon to Samaria after the fall of the latter city (Ezra iv. 10). It has been conjectured that this word is a misreading for Assurbanipal, though the reference in...
ASPALATHUS – A word found only in the Apocrypha (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 15). From the context it appears to be the name of a fragrant wood. It is impossible, however, to identify the plant.J. Jr. G. B. L.
ASPHAR – A pool in the wilderness of Tekoah, where Jonathan and Simon Maccabeus pitched their tents when they fled before the army of Bacchides (I Macc. ix. 33; compare Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 1, § 2). The identification of the place is...
ASRIEL – Eponym of the family of Asrielites, found in the genealogy of Manasseh (Num. xxvi. 31; Joshua, xvii. 2). In I Chron. vii. 14 the A. V. reads "Ashriel."J. Jr. G. B. L.