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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
ASS – Biblical Data: The Bible knows both the wild and the domestic Ass. (1) The wild Ass ("pere" or "'arod") generally roamed about in herds, and is associated with the wilderness (Job xxiv. 5). The character of the wild Ass gave...
ASSHUR – Biblical Data: Name of a city once the capital of Assyria. Asshur was apparently the first important town built by the early colonists of the country, who probably came from Babylonia. One of the earliest known rulers of...
ASSHUR – Biblical Data: Name of a city once the capital of Assyria. Asshur was apparently the first important town built by the early colonists of the country, who probably came from Babylonia. One of the earliest known rulers of...
ASSHURITES – Biblical Data: A nation descended from Abraham and Keturah (Gen. xxv. 3). In prophetic literature the nation is mentioned as being engaged in making benches of ivory for Tyre (Ezek. xxvii. 6). The Asshurites in II Sam. ii. 9can...
ASSIR – 1. A son of Korah, a Levite (Ex. vi. 24, and in the list of I Chron. vi. 7). 2. Son of Ebiasaph and great-grandson of Assir, son of Korah (I Chron. vi. 8, 22). 3. Son of Jeconiah, found in the genealogical lists of the kings of...
ASSYRIA – Name and Origin. The name "Assyria" is the Greek form of the native "Asshur," the city on the west of the Tigris, near its confluence with the Lower Zab, from which the kingdom, and finally the empire, of Assyria was named....
ASSYRIOLOGY AND THE OLD TESTAMENT – The science of Assyriology (the interpretation of the cuneiform inscriptions), which has originated and developed with such marked rapidity within the past fifty years, stands in intimate relations with the Old Testament. The...
ASTARTE WORSHIP AMONG THE HEBREWS – Astarte as a Sphynx.(From Prisse d'Avennes, "Histoire de l'Art Egyptien.")Astarte is the Phenician name of the primitive Semitic mother-goddess, out of which the most important of the Semitic deities were developed. She was...
ASTRONOMY – Biblical Data: Biblical Astronomy, in the broad sense, includes the views taken in the books of the Bible of the position of the earth in the universe, the designation of the stars, planets, fixed stars, and the views held...
ASYLUM – Origin and Character. —Biblical Data (ἰσυλον, "inviolable"): A place of refuge for slaves, debtors, political offenders, and criminals; a sacred spot, a sanctuary, altar, or grave, protected by the presence of a deity or other...
ATAD – A place on the eastern side of the Jordan where Jacob's funeral cortège stopped and mourned for him (Gen. l. 10, 11). Tradition (Gen. ib.) assigns to this circumstance the change in the name of the place to Abel Mizraim,...
ATARAH – Biblical Data: A wife of Jerahmeel and the mother of Onam (I Chron. ii. 26). If Jerahmeel, as seems probable, is the name of a clan, the expression "wife" might point to an alliance (or in the case of "wives" alliances) with...
ATARGATIS – A Syrian divinity referred to in the Apocrypha. A temple of Atargatis existed in Carnion or Carnaim (I Macc. v. 24; II Macc. xii. 26), on the east side of the Jordan. Just what goddess is meant by the name has not as yet been...
ATAROTH – District in Palestine, east of the Jordan. This place is mentioned along with Dibon and Jazer as a very fertile tract of land and good for raising cattle. Reuben and Gad both asked for the land. Gad received it (Num. xxxii. 3)...
ATAROTH – The name of several towns in Palestine:1. A city on the eastern side of the Dead Sea in the land taken from Moab and given to Gad (Num. xxxii. 3). From Num. xxxii. 34 it appears that the city was rebuilt by the Gadites: a fact...
ATER – 1. A family that returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 16; Neh. vii. 21), the head of which signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. x. 18). In I Esd. v. 15, Ater is called Aterezias.2. Doorkeepers of the Temple, who returned with...
ATHACH – A town in Judah, to the inhabitants of which David sent a part of the spoil taken from the Amalekites (I Sam. xxx, 30). It has not been definitely identified. Several scholars consider Athach ( ) the same as Ether ( ; Josh. xv....
ATHALIAH – Daughter of Ahab (II Kings viii. 26) and, presumably, of Jezebel; also called the daughter of Omri (II Chron. xxii. 2). The political alliance of Jehoshaphat, fourth king of Judah, with Ahab, king of Israel (I Kings xxii. 2-4;...
ATONEMENT, DAY OF – Biblical Data. — In Bible, Talmud, and Liturgy: The term , "Yom Kippur," is late rabbinic. The Biblical laws relating to it are found in Lev. xvi. (ceremonies); ib. xxiii. 26-32 (list of holidays); ib. xxv. 9 (ushering in the...
ATTAI – 1. Son of the Egyptian Jarha, to whom Sheshan the Jerahmeelite gave his daughter to wife (I Chron. ii. 35, 36).2. A Gadite chieftain who joined the forces of David at Ziklag (I Chron. xii. 11).3. A son of Rehoboam, and Maachah,...
AVEN – 1. One of several Egyptian cities threatened with God's vengeance (Ezek. xxx. 17). The name is evidently a corruption or an intentional vowel-change of "On" (Gen. xli. 45), which is thus made to signify "vanity." The Septuagint...
AVENGER OF BLOOD – Biblical Data: (Hebrew "go'el"): The Hebrew name for the clansman, "next of kin," upon whom devolved the duties: (1) of avenging, on the person of the murderer, the blood of a murdered kinsman—in this capacity the more specific...
AVVITES, AVVA, AVVIM – 1. A people mentioned in Deut. ii. 23 as being dispossessed by the Caphtorim. This, however, could not have taken place before the days of Joshua, for it is stated in Josh. xiii. 3 that the Israelites upon entering Canaan failed...
'AYIN – The sixteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its numerical value is seventy. In its earlier form it was a circle, a rude picture of the eye, hence its name ("'Ayin" = "eye"). This form is still to be seen on the Moabite Stone,...
AZAL – A place near Jerusalem, but the exact position can not be determined (Zech. xiv. 5). It is supposed by some to be the same as Beth-ezel (Micah i. 11). Clermont-Ganneau identifies it with the Wadi Yasul.J. Jr. G. B. L....